U.S. Geological Survey

Descriptive and Grade-Tonnage Models of
Volcanogenic Manganese Deposits in
Oceanic EnvironmentsA Modification

By Dan L. Mosier and Norman J Page

U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1811



This publication modifies the descriptive and grade and tonnage models
for volcanogenic manganese deposits published in USGS Bulletin 1693,
"Mineral Deposit Models" (D.P. Cox and D.A. Singer, editors, 1986).
Four types of volcanogenic manganese deposits are distinguished on the
basis of geology and geochemical and geophysical characteristics. These
deposit types, called Franciscan, Cuban, Olympic Peninsula, and Cyprus, are
compared with respect to host rocks, associated rocks, minerals, deposit
shape, dimensions, volume, tonnage, grade, and mineral-deposit density.

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For more information about this report contact William D. Heran at wheran@usgs.gov