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Streamflow Data: Current | Historical

Stream-Gaging Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CIRCULAR 1123
Reston, Virginia, 1995

By Kenneth L. Wahl, Wilbert O. Thomas, Jr., and Robert M. Hirsch

You can order a free printed copy of this publication.


CONTENTS


FIGURES

  1. Cumulative reservoir storage in the United States
  2. Number of stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1994, by State or possession
  3. Number of stations and sources of funds, 1994 fiscal year
  4. Relation between standard error of estimate and record length for Minnesota
  5. Relation between drainage area and 50-year flood for small rural streams in eastern Massachusetts
  6. Number of stations and record lengths with acceptable data for studying climate fluctuations
  7. Percentage distribution of funds for U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic data collection, 1994 fiscal year
  8. Map showing areal distribution of stations for Kansas by funding source
  9. Number of stations in the U.S. Geological Survey data base, 1900--90
  10. Schematic of a stilling well and shelter
  11. Discharge measurements made in 1993, by State or possession
  12. Sections of stage-discharge relations for the Colorado River at the Colorado---Utah State line
  13. Schematic of the data flow for realtime operations
  14. Percentages of stations by category of use
  15. Distribution of stations as a function of the number of data-use categories
  16. Number of stations in a given year with acceptable data for studying climate fluctuations

PHOTOGRAPHS

  1. Stilling well and shelter for measuring the stage of a river. ( 70Kb GIF)
  2. Cable car, current meter, and weights used for measuring the discharge of a river from a cableway.( 50Kb GIF)
  3. Current meter and weight suspended from a bridge crane.( 92Kb GIF)
  4. Wading rod and current meter used for measuring the discharge of a river.( 81Kb GIF)
  5. Crane, current meter, and weight used for measuring the discharge of a river from a bridge.( 40Kb GIF)

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bruce Babbit, Secretary
U.S. Geological Survey, Gordon P. Eaton, Director

Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government

This is an electronic version of a U. S. Geological Survey publication. The original paper copy of this report may be obtained free on application to the


CONVERSION FACTORS

               Multiply          By        To obtain
                    foot (ft)  0.3048    meter
                    mile (mi)  1.609     kilometer
            square mile (mi2)  2.590     square kilometer
cubic foot per second (ft3/s)  0.02832   cubic meter per second
          acre-foot (acre-ft)  0.001233  cubic hectometer

REFERENCES

Benson, M.A., and Carter, R.W., 1973, A national study of the streamflow data-collection program: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2028, 44 p.

Carter, R.W., and Benson, M.A., 1969, Concepts for the design of stream-flow data programs: U.S. Geological Survey open-file report, 20 p.

Childress, C.J.O., Chaney, T.H., Myers, D.N., Norris, J.M., and Hren, Janet, 1989, Evaluation of 1984 field and laboratory quality assurance practices, Phase 2 of Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2295--B, 49 p.

Condes de la Torre, A., 1994, Operation of hydrologic data-collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94--84, 53 p.

Fontaine, R.A., Moss, M.E., Smath, J.A., and Thomas, W.O., Jr., 1984, Cost effectiveness of the stream- aging program in Maine---A prototype for nationwide implementation: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2244, 39 p.

Hren, Janet, Chaney, T.H., Norris, J.M., and Childress, C.J.O., 1987, Inventory and evaluation of 1984 programs and costs, Phase I of Water-quality data- collection activities in Colorado and Ohio: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2295--A, 71 p.

Hutchinson, N.E, 1975, WATSTORE user's guide---National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 75--426,6 v.

Jennings, M. E., Thomas, W. O., Jr., and Riggs, H. C., 1994, Nationwide summary of U.S. Geological Survey regional regression equations for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for ungaged sites, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94--4002, 196 p.

Koltun, G.F., and Roberts, J.W., 1989, Techniques for estimating flood-peak discharges of rural, unregulated streams in Ohio: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89--4126, 68 p.

Langbein, W.B., 1954, Stream gaging networks: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 28, p. 293--303.

Leahy, P. P., and Thompson, T. H., 1994, U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-70, 4 p.

Medina, K.D., 1987, Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information with a section on Theory and Application of Generalized Least Squares by G.D. Tasker: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2303, 28 p.

National Research Council, 1991, Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences: Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 348 p.

_______ 1992, Regional hydrology and the USGS stream gaging program: Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 24 p.

National Science Foundation, 1990, Proceedings of the NSF workshop on Drought Research into the 3rd Millennium, May 31--June 1, 1990: Washington, D.C., National Science Foundation, 62 p.

Rantz, S.E., and others, 1982, Measurement and computation of streamflow: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2175, 2 v., 631 p.

Shope, W.G., 1994, Hydrologic data collection via satellite : U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94--28, 2 p.

Slack, J.R., and Landwehr, J. M., 1992, Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN)---A U.S. Geological Survey streamflow data set for the United States for the study of climate fluctuations, 1874--1988: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92--129, 193 p.
Available online from the USGS at <http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/of/ofr92-129/content.html>

Thomas, W.O., Jr., and Wahl, K.L, 1993, Summary of the nationwide analysis of the cost effectiveness of the U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging program (1983--88): U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 93--4168, 27 p.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1981, Inventory of dams [computerized data base; updated by U.S. Geological Survey in 1987].

U.S. Geological Survey, 1990, National water summary 1987---Hydrologic events and water supply and use: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2350, 553 p.

Wandle, S.W., 1983, Estimating peak discharges of small, rural streams in Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2214, 26 p.




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