| An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural
construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram
that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion
of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings.
Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these
products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences
the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability
and transportation costs, as well as physical properties that can affect
stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete
or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular
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