USGS

Water Quality in the Potomac River Basin, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, 1992-96

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SUMMARY OF COMPOUND DETECTIONS AND CONCENTRATIONS

The following tables summarize data collected for NAWQA studies from 1992-95 by showing results for the Potomac River Basin Study Unit compared to the NAWQA national range for each compound detected. The data were collected at a wide variety of places and times. In order to represent the wide concentration ranges observed among Study Units, logarithmic scales are used to emphasize the general magnitude of concentrations (such as 10, 100, or 1,000), rather than the precise number. The complete data set used to construct these tables is available upon request.

  Water samples: Compounds detected || Compounds not detected

  Fish and clam tissue and bed sediment samples: Compounds detected || Compounds not detected


Concentrations of herbicides, insecticides, volatile organic compounds, and nutrients detected in ground and surface waters of the Potomac River Basin Study Unit.

[mg/L, milligrams per liter; µg/L, micrograms per liter; pCi/L, picocuries per liter; %, percent; <, less than; - -, not measured; trade names may vary and are used for identification purposes only]

EXPLANATION

Colors and symbols representing water-quality criteria and NAWQA data

Herbicide
(Trade or common name)

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/L
Rakescale: 0.001 - 1,000 ug/L

Acetochlor

11%
0%

 

Alachlor (Lasso)

18%
0%

 

2,6-Diethylaniline (Alachlor metabolite)

<1%
0%

Atrazine (AAtrex, Gesaprim)

76%
46%

Deethylatrazinec (Atrazine metabolite)

62%
41%

Benfluralin (Balan, Benefin, Bonalan)

1%
0%

Butylate (Sutan, Genate Plus, butilate)

<1%
0%

Cyanazine (Bladex, Fortrol)

21%
0%

DCPA (Dacthal, chlorthal-dimethyl)

1%
<1%

Dicamba (Banvel, Mediben, dianat)

0%
1%

Dichlorprop (2,4-DP, Seritox 50, Kildip)

1%
0%

Diuron (Karmex, Direx, DCMU)

14%
0%

EPTC (Eptam)

1%
<1%

Linuron (Lorox, Linex, Sarclex)

9%
0%

Herbicide
(Trade or common name)

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/L
Rakescale: 0.001 - 1,000 ug/L

MCPA (Agritox, Agroxone)

2%
0%

Metolachlor (Dual, Pennant)

66%
17%

Metribuzin (Lexone, Sencor)

9%
2%

Napropamide (Devrinol)

<1%
0%

Oryzalin (Surflan, Dirimal, Ryzelan)

6%
0%

Pebulate (Tillam)

0%
<1%

Pendimethalin (Prowl, Stomp)

13%
0%

Prometon (Gesagram, prometone)

59%
7%

Propachlor (Ramrod, propachlore)

<1%
0%

Simazine (Aquazine, Princep, Gesatop)

79%
38%

Tebuthiuron (Spike, Perflan)

7%
4%

Terbacilc (Sinbar)

4%
<1%

Triclopyr (Garlon, Grazon, Crossbow)

4%
0%

Trifluralin (Treflan, Trinin, Elancolan)

<1%
<1%

 

Insecticide
(Trade or common name)

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/L
Rakescale: 0.001 - 1,000 ug/L

Azinphos-methylc (Guthion, Gusathion)

3%
0%

Carbarylc (Sevin, Savit)

24%
0%

Carbofuranc (Furadan, Curaterr)

5%
0%

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Lorsban)

8%
<1%

2,4-D (2,4-PA)

20%
0%

p,p'-DDE (p,p'-DDT metabolite)

<1%
<1%

Diazinon

24%
1%

Insecticide
(Trade or common name)

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/L
Rakescale: 0.001 - 1,000 ug/L

Dieldrin (Panoram D-31, Octalox)

1%
0%

Ethoprop (Mocap, Prophos)

<1%
0%

Fonofos (Dyfonate)

1%
0%

gamma-HCH

<1%
0%

Malathion (maldison, malathon, Cythion)

4%
<1%

Methyl parathion (Penncap-M)

2%
0%

Propoxur (Baygon, Blattanex, Unden)

0%
1%

 

Volatile organic compound
(Trade or common name)

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/L
Rakescale: 0.01 - 1,000 ug/L

Methylbenzene (Toluene)

- -
6%

total Trihalomethanes

- -
6%

 

Nutrient
(Trade or common name)

Rate of
detectionb

Concentration, in mg/L
Rakescale: 0.01 - 100,000 mg/L

Dissolved ammonia

87%
88%

Dissolved ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen


77%
10%

Dissolved phosphorus as phosphorus

86%
52%

Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate

99%
74%

Other

Rate of
detectionb

Concentration, in pCi/L
Rakescale: 1 - 100,000 pCi/L

Radon 222

- -
99%

 


Herbicides, insecticides, volatile organic compounds, and nutrients not detected in ground and surface waters of the Potomac River Basin Study Unit.

Herbicides

2,4,5-T
2,4,5-TP (Silvex, Fenoprop)
2,4-DB (Butyrac, Butoxone, Embutox Plus, Embutone)
Acifluorfen (Blazer, Tackle 2S)
Bentazon (Basagran, Bentazone, Bendioxide)
Bromacil (Hyvar X, Urox B, Bromax)
Bromoxynil (Buctril, Brominal)
Chloramben (Amiben, Amilon-WP, Vegiben)
Clopyralid (Stinger, Lontrel, Reclaim, Transline)
Dacthal mono-acid (Dacthal metabolite)
Dinoseb (Dinosebe)
Ethalfluralin (Sonalan, Curbit)
Fenuron (Fenulon, Fenidim)
Fluometuron (Flo-Met, Cotoran, Cottonex, Meturon)
MCPB (Thistrol)
Molinate (Ordram)
Neburon (Neburea, Neburyl, Noruben)
Norflurazon (Evital, Predict, Solicam, Zorial)
Picloram (Grazon, Tordon)
Pronamide (Kerb, Propyzamid)
Propanil (Stam, Stampede, Wham, Surcopur, Prop-Job)
Propham (Tuberite)
Thiobencarb (Bolero, Saturn, Benthiocarb, Abolish)
Triallate (Far-Go, Avadex BW, Tri-allate)

Insecticides

3-Hydroxycarbofuran (Carbofuran metabolite)
Aldicarb sulfone (Standak, aldoxycarb, aldicarb metabolite)
Aldicarb sulfoxide (Aldicarb metabolite)
Aldicarb (Temik, Ambush, Pounce)
Disulfoton (Disyston, Di-Syston, Frumin AL, Solvirex, Ethylthiodemeton)
Methiocarb (Slug-Geta, Grandslam, Mesurol)
Methomyl (Lanox, Lannate, Acinate)
Oxamyl (Vydate L, Pratt)
Parathion (Roethyl-P, Alkron, Panthion, Phoskil)
Phorate (Thimet, Granutox, Geomet, Rampart)
Propargite (Comite, Omite, Ornamite)
Terbufos (Contraven, Counter, Pilarfox)
alpha-HCH (alpha-BHC, alpha-lindane, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, alpha-benzene hexachloride)
cis-Permethrin (Ambush, Astro, Pounce, Pramex, Pertox, Ambushfog, Kafil, Perthrine, Picket, Picket G, Dragnet, Talcord, Outflank, Stockade, Eksmin, Coopex, Peregin, Stomoxin, Stomoxin P, Qamlin, Corsair, Tornade)

Volatile organic compounds

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA)
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methylchloroform)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon 113, CFC 113)
1,1,2-Trichloroethane (Vinyl trichloride)
1,1-Dichloroethane (Ethylidene dichloride)
1,1-Dichloroethene (Vinylidene chloride)
1,1-Dichloropropene
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB)
1,2,3-Trichloropropane (Allyl trichloride)
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (Pseudocumene)
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP, Nemagon)
1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB, Ethylene dibromide)
1,2-Dichlorobenzene (o-Dichlorobenzene, 1,2-DCB)
1,2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene dichloride)
1,2-Dichloropropane (Propylene dichloride)
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (Mesitylene)
1,3-Dichlorobenzene (m-Dichlorobenzene)
1,3-Dichloropropane (Trimethylene dichloride)
1,4-Dichlorobenzene (p-Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-DCB)
1-Chloro-2-methylbenzene (o-Chlorotoluene)
1-Chloro-4-methylbenzene (p-Chlorotoluene)
2,2-Dichloropropane
Benzene
Bromobenzene (Phenyl bromide)
Bromochloromethane (Methylene chlorobromide)
Bromomethane (Methyl bromide)
Chlorobenzene (Monochlorobenzene)
Chloroethane (Ethyl chloride)
Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride)
Chloromethane (Methyl chloride)
Dibromomethane (Methylene dibromide)
Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12, Freon 12)
Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride)
Dimethylbenzenes (Xylenes (total))
Ethenylbenzene (Styrene)
Ethylbenzene (Phenylethane)
Hexachlorobutadiene
Isopropylbenzene (Cumene)
Methyl tert-butyl etherd (MTBE)
Naphthalene
Tetrachloroethene (Perchloroethene)
Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride)
Trichloroethene (TCE)
Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11, Freon 11)
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene ((Z)-1,2-Dichloroethene)
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene ((Z)-1,3-Dichloropropene)
n-Butylbenzene (1-Phenylbutane)
n-Propylbenzene (Isocumene)
p-Isopropyltoluene (p-Cymene)
sec-Butylbenzene
tert-Butylbenzene
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene ((E)-1,2-Dichlorothene)
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene ((E)-1,3-Dichloropropene)

Nutrients

No non-detects


Concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine compounds, and trace elements detected in fish and clam tissue and bed sediment of the Potomac River Basin Study Unit.

[µg/g, micrograms per gram; µg/kg, micrograms per kilogram; %, percent; <, less than; - -, not measured; trade names may vary]

EXPLANATION

Colors and symbols representing water-quality criteria and NAWQA data

Semivolatile
organic compound

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/kg
Rakescale: 0.1 - 100,000 ug/kg

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene - -
20%

1,2-Dimethylnaphthalene - -
20%

1,4-Dichlorobenzene - -
33%

1,6-Dimethylnaphthalene - -
67%

1-Methyl-9H-fluorene - -
85%

1-Methylphenanthrene - -
80%

1-Methylpyrene - -
60%

2,3,6-Trimethylnaphthalene - -
43%

2,4-Dinitrotoluene - -
43%

2,6-Dimethylnaphthalene - -
100%

2,6-Dinitrotoluene - -
33%

2-Chlorophenol - -
50%

2-Methylanthracene - -
73%

3,5-Dimethylphenol - -
20%

4,5-Methylenephenanthrene - -
60%

4-Bromophenyl-phenylether - -
33%

4-Chloro-3-methylphenol - -
33%

4-Chlorophenyl-phenylether - -
33%

9H-Carbazole - -
75%

9H-Fluorene - -
67%

Acenaphthene - -
78%

Acenaphthylene - -
91%

Acridine - -
78%

Anthracene - -
90%

Anthraquinone - -
91%

Azobenzene - -
56%

Semivolatile
organic compound

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/kg

Rakescale: 0.1 - 100,000 ug/kg

Benz[ a ]anthracene - -
100%

Benzo[ a ]pyrene - -
96%

Benzo[ b ]fluoranthene - -
95%

Benzo[ c ]cinnoline - -
56%

Benzo[ ghi ]perylene - -
71%

Benzo[ k ]fluoranthene - -
95%

Butylbenzylphthalate - -
86%

Chrysene - -
100%

Di- n -butylphthalate - -
100%

Di- n -octylphthalate - -
40%

Dibenz[ a,h ] anthracene - -
67%

Dibenzothiophene - -
80%

Diethylphthalate - -
100%

Dimethylphthalate - -
67%

Fluoranthene - -
100%

Indeno[1,2,3- cd ] pyrene - -
82%

Isophorone - -
20%

Isoquinoline - -
50%

Naphthalene - -
69%

N-Nitrosodi- n -propylamine - -
20%

Phenanthrene - -
96%

Phenanthridine - -
81%

Phenol - -
94%

Pyrene - -
100%

bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane - -
56%

bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate - -
100%

p-Cresol - -
95%

 

Organochlorine
compound
(Trade name)

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/kg
Rakescale: 0.01 - 100,000 ug/kg

total-Chlordane 26%
48%

Chloroneb (chloronebe) - -
4%

Dieldrin (Panoram D-31, Octalox) 13%
36%

PCB, total 39%
68%

DCPA (dacthal, chlorthal-dimethyl) 3%
4%

p,p'-DDE 16%
88%

total-DDT 26%
88%

beta-HCH (beta-BHC, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane) 10%
0%

gamma-HCH (lindane, gamma-BHC) 0%
4%

Heptachlor epoxide 13%
12%

Heptachlor (heptachlore, Velsicol) 3%
8%

p,p'-Methoxychlor (Marlate) 3%
4%

Pentachloroanisole 3%
8%

Toxaphene (camphechlor) 0%
4%

Trace
element

Rate
of
detec-
tionb

Concentration, in µg/g

Rakescale: 0.01 - 10,000 ug/g

Arsenic 80%
48%

Cadmium 96%
100%

Chromium 100%
100%

Copper 100%
100%

Lead 72%
100%

Mercury 56%
100%

Nickel 100%
100%

Selenium 96%
100%

Zinc 100%
100%


Semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine compounds, and trace elements not detected in fish and clam tissue and bed sediment of the Potomac River Basin Study Unit.

Semivolatile organic compounds

1,2-Dichlorobenzene (o-Dichlorobenzene, 1,2-DCB)
1,3-Dichlorobenzene (m-Dichlorobenzene)
2,2-Biquinoline
2-Chloronaphthalene
2-Ethylnaphthalene
C8-Alkylphenol
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
Nitrobenzene
Pentachloronitrobenzene
Quinoline

Organochlorine compounds

Aldrin (HHDN, Octalene)
Endosulfan I (alpha-Endosulfan, Thiodan, Cyclodan, Beosit, Malix, Thimul, Thifor)
Endrin (Endrine)
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
Isodrin (Isodrine, Compound 711)
Mirex (Dechlorane)
alpha-HCH (alpha-BHC, alpha-lindane, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, alpha-benzene hexachloride)
cis-Permethrin (Ambush, Astro, Pounce, Pramex, Pertox, Ambushfog, Kafil, Perthrine, Picket, Picket G, Dragnet, Talcord, Outflank, Stockade, Eksmin, Coopex, Peregin, Stomoxin, Stomoxin P, Qamlin, Corsair, Tornade)
delta-HCH (delta-BHC, delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, delta-benzene hexachloride)
o,p'-Methoxychlor
trans-Permethrin (Ambush, Astro, Pounce, Pramex, Pertox, Ambushfog, Kafil, Perthrine, Picket, Picket G, Dragnet, Talcord, Outflank, Stockade, Eksmin, Coopex, Peregin, Stomoxin, Stomoxin P, Qamlin, Corsair, Tornade)

Trace elements

No non-detects


a Selected water-quality standards and guidelines (Gilliom and others, in press).

b Rates of detection are based on the number of analyses and detections in the Study Unit, not on national data. Rates of detection for herbicides and insecticides were computed by only counting detections equal to or greater than 0.01 µg/L to facilitate equal comparisons among compounds that had varying detection limits; a value of <1% signifies that there were only detection below, or <1% above, the 1µg/L level. Some herbicides and insecticides were not reliably detected as low as the 0.01µg/L level, so frequencies may be underestimated for some compounds. For other compound groups, all detections were counted and detection limits for most compounds were similar to the lower end of the national ranges shown. Method detection limits for all compounds in all groups are summarized in Gilliom and others (in press).

c Detections of these compounds are reliable, but concentrations are determined with greater uncertainty than for the other compounds and are reported as estimated values (Zaugg and others, 1995).

d The guideline for methyl tert-butyl ether is between 20 and 40 µg/L; if the tentative cancer classification C is accepted, the lifetime health advisory will be 20 µg/L (Gilliom and others, in press).

e Selected sediment quality guidelines (Gilliom and others, in press).


U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1166

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Suggested citation:
Ator, S.W., Blomquist, J.D., Brakebill, J.W., Denis, J.M., Ferrari, M.J., Miller, C.V., and Zappia, H., 1998, Water Quality in the Potomac River Basin, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, 1992-96: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1166, on line at <URL: http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ1166>, updated June 10, 1998 .

This page is a subpage of <URL:http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ1166>
Email questions and comments to GS-W_NAWQA_Outreach@usgs.gov
Last modified: Mon Jun 29 15:32:43 1998