As world population increases and the world economy expands, so does the demand for natural resources. An accurate assessment of the Nation’s mineral resources must include not only the resources available in the ground but also those that become available through recycling. Supplying this information to decisionmakers is an essential part of the USGS commitment to providing the science that society needs to meet natural resource and environmental challenges.
The U.S. Geological Survey is authorized by Congress to collect, analyze, and disseminate data on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals essential to the U.S. economy and national security. This information on mineral occurrence, production, use, and recycling helps policymakers manage resources wisely.
USGS Circular 1196, “Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States,” presents the results of flow studies for recycling 26 metal commodities, from aluminum to zinc. These metals are a key component of the U.S. economy. Overall, recycling accounts for more than 40 percent of the U.S. metal supply.
Marcia K. McNutt
Chapter G—Iron and Steel
Chapter I—Columbium (Niobium)
First posted October 11, 2011
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Sibley, S.F., ed., 2006–11, Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1196–A–Z–AA, the 27 chapters are separately paged and are available only at https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1196/.