U.S. Geological Circular 1225--The Quality of Our Nation's Waters--Nutrients and Pesticides
STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR PROTECTING WATER QUALITY
Water-quality standards and guidelines generally are maximum acceptable concentrations of pesticides for protecting humans, aquatic life, or wildlife. They are established by the United States and other nations, international organizations, and some States and tribes. For this report, precedence was given to standards and guidelines established by the USEPA and then to those established by Canada or the International Joint Commission for the Great Lakes, although some states may have different standards and guidelines that take priority for particular water bodies.(25)
Drinking-water standards or guide-lines have been established for 43 of the 76 pesticides analyzed, and aquatic-life guidelines have been established for 28 of the 76 pesticides. Aquatic-life or wildlife guidelines are available for 8 of the 16 pesticides (compounds or groups) analyzed in bed sediment or fish.
Current standards and guidelines do not completely eliminate risks because: (1) values are not established for many pesticides, (2) mixtures and breakdown products are not considered, (3) the effects of seasonal exposure to high concentrations have not been evaluated, and (4) some types of potential effects, such as endocrine disruption and unique responses of sensitive individuals, have not yet been assessed
Most pesticides are manufactured compounds that are designed to kill specific pests, such as weeds and insects. Many pesticides have the potential to harm nontarget organisms, especially if the organisms are exposed to high levels or for a long period of time. In the early 1960s, Rachel Carson's widely publicized book "Silent Spring"(32) described the ecological impacts of DDT and other pesticides. Concerns about the unintended effects of pesticides continue to this day, and evaluation of the risk to humans and the environment from present-day levels of pesticide exposure remains highly controversial.
A difficult aspect of evaluating potential effects of pesticides is determining what may occur as a result of varying types and durations of exposure. Exposure is complicated by pesticide mixtures, breakdown products, strong seasonal concentration pulses, and high concentrations during stormflows. In contrast, most toxicity assessments are based on controlled experiments with a single contaminant over a limited range of concentrations.
Although uncertainties remain, water-quality standards and guidelines have been developed for many pesticides in order to protect human health and aquatic life, and they are used in this report to signal potential problem areas. Concentrations that exceed a standard or guideline, however, may not be a problem at some sites. Conversely, the absence of an exceedance does not ensure that there is no problem.
Some people believe that any presence of pesticides in their drinking water is too much, whereas others feel that the standards and guidelines established for many of the major pesticides provide adequate protection. Which of these perspectives is closest to the truth remains unclear, but certainly the effects of common patterns of pesticide exposure found in NAWQA studies have not yet been fully evaluated.
The uncertainty in whether or not present-day levels of pesticide contamination are a threat to human health or aquatic life makes it imperative that we understand the nature of exposure, the causes of contamination, and the actions we can take to reduce pesticide levels in streams and ground water. Only by accurately characterizing the nature and causes of environmental exposure can we develop effective strategies to minimize exposure and reliably evaluate relations between exposure and effects.
HORMONE LEVELS IN FISH SHOW SIGNS OF POSSIBLE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION
A reconnaissance study of sex hormones in carp collected at 11 NAWQA stream sites indicates that pesticides may be affecting the ratio of estrogen to testosterone in both males and females.(33) The hormone ratio, which is sometimes used as an indicator of potential abnormalities in the endocrine system, was significantly lower at sites with the highest pesticide concentrations. Although the lower hormone ratios may not be associated with measurable effects on fish populations, they are a signal that further investigation is needed.
|The most frequently detected pesticides are those most heavily used|
|Decades of pesticide use have resulted in their widespread occurrence in streams and ground water|
|The Quality of Our Nation's Water--Nutrients and Pesticides|