By Christina Neal, Robert McGimsey, and Michael F. Diggles
Digital Data Series DDS-40
U.S. Department of the Interior
Gale A. Norton, Secretary
U.S. Geological Survey
Charles G. Groat, Director
This is the on-line version of a CDROM publication. It differs from the version published on the disc only in that it does not contain the search catalog, viewing software, nor autoplay files. This version consists of 485 MB whereas the disc version consists of 537 MB.
Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CDROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaskas volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska.
These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the images folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, UNIX, and Linux platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format), TIF (TIFF Tagged Image File Format), or PCD (Kodaks PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CDROM are Adobe Acrobat PDF (Portable Document Format) files as well as Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodaks policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CDROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to TIF and PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CDROM contains large (14.2x19.5) and small (4x6) screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the TIF and PhotoCD images. Each of these resolutions is located in the following folders:
Feel free to use any of these images but please cite the photographer and the U.S. Geological Survey.
Shortcut: Get the high resolution versions of these images: the TIF format files.
This CDROM presents 97 photographs showing volcanic activity and features in the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. The images are presented in a variety of ways:
The content within this publication is presented in several formats all but one of which are accessible to sight-disabled people. The slideshow files are image-only PDFs and therefore have no tags and are not accessible but these images are the same as those presented in the files album.html and DDS-40.pdf, both of which are fully accessible using assistive technology such as screen readers and comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 508.
An album is provided here as an HTML file. It consists of the 97 photographs with captions. Each image is first presented as a 4x6 image. If you click on any 4x6 image, it will bring up a larger version (14 wide or 10 high). Use your browsers Back button to return to the album. The color palate contains 16.7 million colors.
View the Web-browser album (album.html; 48 KB with links to 19.5 MB of image files)
To view PDF files on this CDROM, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader which is provided in the Acrobat folder on the CDROM version of this publication for both Macintosh and Windows (version 5.0). Both users of the CDROM and online version of this publication can download the latest version or Acrobat Reader for free using the button below.
The book is provided here as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file (DDS-40.pdf). It is the same collection of photographs but each image is print-quality (3072x2048 pixels; 4x6 512 dpi) and it contains text, figures, captions, references, and a glossary.
View the Acrobat book (DDS-40.pdf; 27 MB)
A slideshow is provided in the slideshow folder as a pair of Adobe Acrobat PDF files, slideshow1024.pdf (7.6 MB) or slideshow1920.pdf (14.2 MB). The images in slideshow1024.pdf are 1024 pixels wide or 768 pixels high which is typical of what monitors up to 17" use. The images in slideshow1920.pdf are 1900 pixels wide or 1200 pixels high which is typical of what monitors up to 23" use. If you are using a smaller monitor, select the smaller file because it will load and display faster. To run either slideshow, you need to open it directly with Acrobat Reader rather than through this HTML front end with its browser plugin. To do this, quit (or minimize) this page, go directly to the CDROM, open the slideshow folder, and open the slideshow file of your choice.
Go to the slideshow files and download the one of your choice by right-clicking (PC) or clicking-and-holding or dragging-and-dropping (Mac).
Tip: To automate the slideshow, open Acrobat Reader, select Edit, Preferences, General, Full Screen... and check Advance Every 3 Seconds. Then open the slideshow. To exit the slideshow PDF file. To exit the slideshow at any time, hit the Esc button.
(Old versions of Acrobat Reader such as 4.0 have the automate choice under File, Preferences, Full Screen).
The small-screen images (432 pixels in the long dimension) used in the HTML album, the large-screen images (landscape, 1024 pixels wide; portrait, 768 pixels high) used in both the HTML and PDF slideshow, and print-quality (3072x2048 pixels) images in TIF and PCD format and used in the PDF book are available individually using the links below.
View the collection of small-screen images (images/JPG/small_screen; 1.7 MB total)
View the collection of large-screen images (images/JPG/large_screen; 16.1 MB total)
View the collection of TIF files; 6-megapixels (images/TIF; 1.72 GB total)
View the collection of PCD files; 6-megapixels (images/PCD; 418 MB total)
For users who have commercial software that can read and print PCD files, the photographs are provided on this CD-ROM in that format in the PCD folder which is in the images folder.
Each PCD file has five resolutions of images contained within each file. You can make a choice as to which one you want to use rather than needing to down-sample an image that is larger than you need. For example, when you open a PCD file in Adobe Photoshop, you get a dialog box where you select the resolution of your choice and then that version of the image opens.
You can also use the largest of the choices, for instance, to make a poster-sized hard copy on a large plotter. Do this by opening a PCD in high-resolution mode (3072 x 2048 pixels) and setting the image size to 90 dpi and you will get a picture that is nearly two-feet by three-feet.
In the hierarchy of file formats, PhotoCD (YCC) resides above BMP, EPS, GIF, JPEG, MOV, PCX, PICT, PSD, TIF, TIFF, etc., enabling end users to go from YCC to other formats, but not in the other direction without losing image quality. Each 24-bit color image is stored as 5 resolutions:
1. Thumbnail [192 x 128 pixels]Contact-sheet-size images for quick previewing of the entire collection.
2. FPO For Placement Only [384 x 256 pixels]A proxy for high-resolution images to determine placement in page-layout programs.
3. Screen Resolution [786 x 512 pixels]Ideal for computer viewing and multimedia projects.
4. HDTV High-Definition Television [1536 x 1024 pixels]Sufficient resolution for high definition TV, newspapers, and high-quality half-page layouts.
5. High Resolution [3072 x 2048 pixels]Provides the printing industry with resolution sufficient for high-quality full-page layouts at 300 dpi/150 lpi and 24-bit color.
The captions for each image, besides being included in the HTML front end and the PDF file, are provided in ASCII format in the captions.txt file.
View the Captions file for this CDROM (captions.txt; 44 KB)
Color scanning was done on a Kodak(3) PIW scanner. The resulting PCD files were edited in Adobe Photoshop 6.0 for Macintosh and converted JPG files. They were also converted to TIF format with Lemke Software's GraphicConverter v4.4. The small-screen images were made with JPG compression set to 3; the large-screen images were made with JPG compression set to 9. The book PDF file was constructed using Adobe PageMaker 7.0 page-layout software for Macintosh. The PDFs were tagged using the Make Accessible plug-in for Adobe Acrobat 5.0 for Windows after which the alternative text was hand tagged. The master for the CDROM was made on a LaCie CDBP-16104A CDROM recorder using Roxio Toast Titanium 5.0.1 software for Macintosh set at ISO-9660 Level II CDROM format with Macintosh names (compatible with Windows) and Apple Extensions.
Compiling a set of images from the AVO collection onto CDROM was first proposed by Joe Dorava. The authors have benefited greatly from the technical assistance, tenacity, and enthusiasm of John Nakata and Evelyn Newman. Reviews of caption text by Chris Nye, John Nakata, Jim Smith, and Lee Siebert improved their content. Map figure was generated by Anne Vanderpool and Kathy Lemke. Bernadette Johnson painstakingly labeled several sets of duplicate 35-mm slides. Mark Lohnes ably scanned the images. John Nakata provided the summary on Kodak PCD image-pac format and suggested the thumbnail collection on the inside front cover of the CD-ROM "jewel" case. Mary Jane Coombs suggested the map figure's hyperlink feature. Bobbie Myers designed the volcanoes banner. We thank all the photographers who shared their work with us.
View the version history of this publication (version_history.txt; 4 KB).
View the Readme file for this CDROM (1_README.TXT; 16 KB).
This report is for sale on CDROM by:
USGS Information Services
Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225
Telephone: (888) ASK-USGS
Current pricing information is available from http://mapping.usgs.gov/esic/prices/.
Email content questions about this publication to the senior author, Christina Neal (email@example.com), U.S. Geological Survey.
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URL of this page: http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-40/
Maintained by: Michael Diggles
Created: 26 July 2001
Last modified: July 2, 2009 (mfd)