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A seamless, high-resolution, coastal digital elevation model (DEM) for Southern California

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Patrick L. Barnard
Originator: Daniel Hoover
Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
A seamless, high-resolution, coastal digital elevation model (DEM) for Southern California
Edition: Version 1.0, October 1, 2009
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: ARC Ascii Grids (for conversion to raster grids)
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/487/>
Description:
Abstract:
A seamless, three-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the +20-m elevation contour.
Purpose:
This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define with the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on fine-scale (meters to tens of meters) variations in elevation and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.
Supplemental_Information:
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document the data set in nonproprietary form, as well as in ArcInfo format, this metadata file may include some ArcInfo-specific terminology.

<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/coastal_processes/socalhazards/>

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1996
Ending_Date: 2008
Currentness_Reference:
topography at time underlying data set was collected (See Source Information)
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -120.511
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -117.033
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 34.494
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 32.518
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: digital elvation model
Theme_Keyword: coastal
Theme_Keyword: beaches
Theme_Keyword: ocean
Theme_Keyword: hazards
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: elevation
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS > BATHYMETRY/SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY > BATHYMETRY
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS > BATHYMETRY/SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY > SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
Theme_Keyword: IfSAR > Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
Theme_Keyword: LIDAR > Light Detection and Ranging
Theme_Keyword: MSBS > Multibeam Swath Bathymetry System
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
Theme_Keyword: DEM > Digital Elevation Model
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Southern California
Place_Keyword: California
Place_Keyword: USA
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GEOnet Names Server
Place_Keyword: north Pacific Ocean
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Majority of data (that is, Lidar, multibeam bathymetry, IfSAR) derived from topographic/bathymetry data collected at 1-3 m horizontal resolution,with vertical uncertainty at time of data collection ranging from 10 cm to 1 m, Use at greater scales not advised. See full Data Series report for more information:

Barnard, P.L. and Hoover, D., 2009. A seamless, high-resolution, coastal digital elevation model (DEM) for southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 487, 8 p., <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/487/>.

This information is not intended for navigational purposes.

Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Patrick L. Barnard
Contact_Organization:
United States Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG)
Contact_Position: Reserach Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: USGS, 400 Natural Bridges Drive
City: Santa Cruz
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 95060
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (831) 427-4756
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (831) 427-4748
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pbarnard@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/coastal_processes/???>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: preview image of report (in zip file)
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) and
Fugro Pelagos, Inc. for California State Waters Mapping Project (CSWMP)
    from Pat Iampietro;
Fugro Pelagos, Inc. (Fugro);
Los Angeles County
    from Drew Decker;
National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC);
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA);
San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)/Fugro;
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps)
    from Darren Wright;
United States Geologial Survey (USGS)
    from Pete Dartnell and from David Finlayson;
University of Texas at Austin (UT)
    from Randy Bucciarielli and from Robert Gutierrez.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3.1.1850
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: United States Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 2009
Title: Southern California Coastal Hazards
Online_Linkage: <http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/coastal_processes/socalhazards/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Refer to the DEM Accuracy and Limitations section in this Data Series for an explanation of the accuracy of the identification of the entities and assignments of values in the data set and a description of the tests used.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Refer to the DEM Accuracy and Limitations section in this Data Series for an explanation of the accuracy of the horizontal coordinate measurements and a description of the tests used.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Refer to the DEM Accuracy and Limitations section in this Data Series for an explanation of the accuracy of the vertical coordinate measurements and a description of the tests used.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Refer to the DEM Construction Methods section in this Data Series for an explanation of the fidelity of relationships in the data set and tests used.
Completeness_Report:
Refer to the DEM Construction Methods section in this Data Series for information about omissions, selection criteria, generalization, definitions used, and other rules used to derive the data set.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: California State University, Monterey Bay
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Multibeam bathymetry
Other_Citation_Details: contact Pat Iampietro, <pat_iampietro@csumb.edu>
Online_Linkage: <http://seafloor.csumb.edu/SFMLwebDATA.htm>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2001
Ending_Date: 2007
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CSUMB
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage areas: nearshore bathymetry, La Jolla Canyon, nearshore Santa Monica Bay, and nearshore in Ventura County.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Fugro Pelagos, Inc. for California State Waters Mapping Project
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Multibeam bathymetry
Other_Citation_Details: contact Pat Iampietro, <pat_iampietro@csumb.edu>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2008
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Fugro for CSWMP
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage areas: offshore Coal Oil and Pt. Conception region, nearshore San Diego County, nearshore Orange County, Los Angeles Harbor, nearshore Santa Monica Bay, west of Pt. Dume, and east of Mugu.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Fugro Pelagos, Inc.
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey (SHOALS)
Other_Citation_Details: contact Pete Dartnell, <pdartnell@usgs.gov>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2002
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Fugro
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage area: Orange County nearshore western half.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Los Angeles County
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Lidar (topo)
Other_Citation_Details: contact Drew Decker, <ddecker@usgs.gov>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2006
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Los Angeles County
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage area: all Los Angeles County.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Geophysical Data Center
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Regional Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
Online_Linkage: <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/coastal/coastal.html>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: Unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NGDC
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage area: all Southern California.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: IfSAR, LIDAR (topo), multibeam bathymetry, and tsunami DEM
Online_Linkage: <http://maps.csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/viewer.html>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1998
Ending_Date: 2003
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NOAA
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage areas: all land, Mugu to Los Angeles County border, El Segundo nearshore, Los Angeles Harbor, and Santa Barbara Channel
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: San Diego Association of Governments
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Multibeam bathymetry
Other_Citation_Details: contact Pete Dartnell, <pdartnell@usgs.gov>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2001
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: SANDAG/Fugro
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage area: inside 40 m isobath, San Diego County.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: ATV/PWC and CHARTS Lidar (Topo+Bathy)
Other_Citation_Details: contact Darren Wright, Scripps
Online_Linkage: <http://cdip.ucsd.edu/SCBPS/?nav=data>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2004
Ending_Date: 2009
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Scripps
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage areas: Camp Pendleton, Cardiff, Torrey Pines, Imperial Beach, and most of San Diego County
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: United States Geologial Survey
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Z-2-06-SC, Z-1-07-SC, and S-8-08-SC multibeam bathymetry; S-V2-06-CA and S-V1-07-CA personal watercraft (PWC)
Other_Citation_Details:
contact Patrick Barnard <pbarnard@usgs.gov>; Pete Dartnell, <pdartnell@usgs.gov>; and David Finlayson, <dfinlayson@usgs.gov>
Online_Linkage:
<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/z/z206sc/html/z-2-06-sc.meta.html>
Online_Linkage:
<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/z/z107sc/html/z-1-07-sc.meta.html>
Online_Linkage:
<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/s/s808sc/html/s-8-08-sc.meta.html>
Online_Linkage:
<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/s/sv206ca/html/s-v2-06-ca.meta.html>
Online_Linkage:
<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/s/sv107ca/html/s-v1-07-ca.meta.html>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1996
Ending_Date: 2008
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: USGS
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage areas: East of Gaviota, El Capitan, nearshore Carpinteria, Coal Oil, nearshore Gaviota and Naples, Tijuana Estuary, Los Angeles and San Diego County, Orange County nearshore western half, Ventura nearshore, nearshore east Carpinteria plus offshore bathymetry for Santa Barbara Channel, Ventura region, Mugu region, Rincon region, Carpinteria, and Goleta.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: University of Texas at Austin
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Lidar (topo)
Other_Citation_Details:
contact Randy Bucciarielli, <rbucciarelli@ucsd.edu>, and Robert Gutierrez, UT
Online_Linkage: <http://maps.csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/viewer.html>
Type_of_Source_Media: digital data - raster grids or ascii xyz text files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2005
Ending_Date: 2007
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: UT
Source_Contribution:
Provided data for coverage areas: San Diego County, Orange County, Seal Beach to Long Beach, and Point Conception to Point Mugu coastal strip.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
ESRI geoprocessing history
  Tool location:
    C:\ArcGIS\ArcToolbox\Toolboxes\Spatial Analyst Tools.tbx\ExtractByMask
  Command issued:
    ExtractByMask la1unclip DEMFullCoverageAreas\la1_fullcoveragearea D:\HazardsModel\DEM\FinalDEMs\CoastalHighRes\DEMs_3m\FinalMosaics\la1final
  _________________
  Spatial data description
  Raster dataset information
  Raster format: GRID
  SDTS raster type: Grid Cell
  Number of raster bands: 1
  Raster properties
  Origin location: Upper Left
  Has pyramids: FALSE
  Has colormap: FALSE
  Data compression type: Default
  Display type: matrix values
  Cell information
  Number of cells on x-axis: 7317
  Number of cells on y-axis: 8160
  Number of cells on z-axis: 1
  Number of bits per cell: 32
  Cell Size
  X distance: 3.000000
  Y distance: 3.000000
  _________________
Process_Date: 20090615
Process_Time: 154257
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
(Summary) Performed by Patrick Barnard and Dan Hoover:

  ArcGIS was the primary software used for DEM construction.
  For each individual DEM, the native data sets were mosaiced into a single grid
  to preserve the original surfaces as closely as possible.
  Prior to mosaicing, data sets were gridded and/or resampled to 3 m resolution (if necessary),
  and their spatial extents modified according to the following guidelines:

  1. Data sets of comparable quality
     (for example, overlapping multibeam data) or
     where relative data quality could not be determined
     (for example, older multibeam and recent but lower resolution personal-watercraft data,
     were not clipped.
     In these instances the overlapping regions were blended together
     using the Blend algorithm in the Mosaic to New Raster tool in Arc Toolbox.

  2. In overlapping regions where the quality of one data set was clearly inferior
     to the other (for example, IfSAR overlapping with Lidar),
     the spatial extent of the inferior data set was clipped so there was minimal overlap,
     typically about ~10-30 m, with the superior data set.
     The overlapping regions then were smoothed together using the Blend algorithm.
     This range of overlap was found to be the most efficient
     for ensuring a smooth transition between data sets
     while minimizing the use the of data set of inferior quality.
Process_Date: 2009
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
(Detailed) Performed by Patrick Barnard and Dan Hoover:

  1. Divide study area into ~10 km alongshore segments
     A. Define DEM coverage area/polygon that extends
        ~10 km alongshore from -20 m isobath to 20 m topographic contour or
        750 m from back beach, whichever is longer
     B. Ensure that adjacent DEM coverage areas overlap by ~ 250 m
     C. Cut off DEMs at county boundaries with ~500 m overlap

  2. Acquire most recent or highest resolution data sets in DEM coverage areas (Figure 2)
     A. Lidar
     B. Multibeam bathymetry
     C. Local high-resolution beach topography (usually ATV-acquired) and
        nearshore bathymetry (usually PWC-acquired)
     D. IfSAR

  3. Fill gaps with older/lower resolution data sets
     A. Lidar (for example, NOAA Digital Coast, 1997-98)
     B. NOAA lower-resolution multibeam (for example, Los Angeles Harbor entrance)
     C. Regional, lower resolution DEMs (for example, NOAA Santa Barbara Channel 10-m DEM)

  4. Convert all data sets into identical
     horizontal coordinate system, vertical datum, and grid resolution
     A. Horizontal coordinate system: UTM NAD 83 Zone 11 North
     B. Vertical Datum: NAVD88
        -If different (usually MLLW), convert using local NOAA tide station information
        (<http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/>) based on survey metadata
     C. Grid resolution: 3 m
        -If already gridded at higher or < 10 m resolution,
         resample to 3 m using bilinear interpolation
        -If already gridded at resolution of =10 m, export as xyz,
         re-import as xyz, create TIN (triangular irregular network),
         create 3 m grid from TIN using linear interpolation of the TIN triangles,
         clip to survey extent
        -If ungridded then for:
        -Lidar (topography):
         3 m grid using natural neighbor interpolation
         to preserve abrupt elevation changes (for example, beaches backed by cliffs)
        -Multibeam:
         3 m grid using inverse distance weighting using "Average Gridder"
         in Fledermaus- ideal for data sets >   10 million points
        -Lower resolution surveys (for example, personal waterscraft-collected bathymetry):
         create TIN from points then convert to 3 m grid
         using linear interpolation of the TIN triangles

  5. Clip data sets to DEM/coverage needs, if necessary
     A. Useful for data management and processing efficiency
     B. Necessary for very large data sets, such as county-wide IfSAR or
        very large Lidar data sets (for example, Los Angeles County)
     C. Clip ocean and waves from topographic Lidar and IfSAR
        -Clip water level by determining sea level at time of survey then
         using "Extract by Attributes" tool in Arc Toolbox
        -Clip wave crests manually with mask

  6. Manage overlapping data sets
     A. Data sets allowed to overlap extensively only if they are of comparable quality,
        otherwise minimal (~10-30 m) overlap to ensure smooth DEM transitions
     B. Clip IfSAR data (lower quality)
        to minimal overlap with topographic Lidar (better quality)
     C. Clip low-resolution data sets gridded to higher resolution,
        such as Personal Watercraft data and regional DEMs,
        to minimal overlap with adjacent high-resolution data sets
        (usually multibeam and topographic Lidar)
     D. Extensive overlap between adjacent Lidar and multibeam data sets rare but
        allowed as quality is comparable

  7. Fill in data gaps between high-resolution data sets
     A. If no high-resolution data exist between the 10 m isobath and coastal Lidar, or
        in protected harbors/embayments or other areas where interpolation
        from surrounding data sets will create a surface unlikely
        to accurately reflect actual bathymetry/topography,
        fill in with regional DEMs or other low-resolution data sets.
        Otherwise interpolate across gaps.
        -Filling in with regional DEMs/other low-resolution data:
        -Clip best available regional DEM to fill gap with minimal overlap (~10-30 m)
         with adjacent high resolution data sets
        -Export clipped grid as xyz, reimport as points, create tin,
         create 3 m grid from tin, clip to gap extent
        -Interpolation
        -Create preliminary DEM using Mosaic tool with the following settings:
         Coordinate System: UTM Zone 11 North
         Pixel Type: 32_Bit_Float
         Cell Size:  3
         Mosaic Method: Blend
         Mosaic Color Map: Last
        -Create mask of data gap(s) to fill with minimal overlap
         with preliminary DEM surface
        -Clip preliminary DEM with mask, export clipped grid as xyz,
         reimport as points, create tin, create 3 m grid from tin, clip to gap extent

  8. Compile final DEMs
     A. Load all data sets for DEM
     B. Verify all significant data gaps filled (few missing cells OK) in DEM coverage area
     C. Build DEM using Mosaic to New Raster tool in ArcGIS with same setting as in Item #7
     D. Clip DEM to DEM coverage area
     E. Create contours and plot cross-shore profiles to verify data quality and consistency
Process_Date: 2009
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
First draft of metadata created by Patrick Barnard using .txt template
Process_Date: 20090924

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell
Row_Count: 8160
Column_Count: 7317
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 11
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -117.000000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
False_Easting: 500000.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 3.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 3.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Planar:
Local_Planar:
Local_Planar_Description:
Horizontal coordinate system
  Projected coordinate system name: NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_11N
  Geographic coordinate system name: GCS_North_American_1983
Local_Planar_Georeference_Information:
Bounding coordinates
  Horizontal
    In decimal degrees
      West: -118.239274
      East: -117.999280
      North: 33.918479
      South: 33.695581
    In projected or local coordinates
      Left: 385440.225447
      Right: 407391.225447
      Top: 3753569.022415
      Bottom: 3729089.022415
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 3.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 3.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
United States Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG)
Contact_Person: Patrick L Barnard
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: USGS, 400 Natural Bridges Drive
City: Santa Cruz
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 95060
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (831) 427-4756
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (831) 427-4748
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pbarnard@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 487
Distribution_Liability:
Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.

Although these data have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data.

The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of this data, software, or related materials.

Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Compressed file including Arcinfo grid and metadata.
Format_Version_Number: 7.2
Format_Specification: Arcinfo grid
File_Decompression_Technique: windows winzip or unix gunzip
Transfer_Size: 0.526
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/487/>
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20100127
Metadata_Review_Date: 20100127
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
United States Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG)
Contact_Person: Patrick L Barnard
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: USGS, 400 Natural Bridges Drive
City: Santa Cruz
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 95060
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (831) 427-4756
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (831) 427-4748
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pbarnard@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints: none
Metadata_Extensions:
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