Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document the data set in nonproprietary form, as well as in ArcInfo format, this metadata file may include some ArcInfo-specific terminology.
Barnard, P.L. and Hoover, D., 2009. A seamless, high-resolution, coastal digital elevation model (DEM) for southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 487, 8 p., <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/487/>.
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California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) and Fugro Pelagos, Inc. for California State Waters Mapping Project (CSWMP) from Pat Iampietro; Fugro Pelagos, Inc. (Fugro); Los Angeles County from Drew Decker; National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)/Fugro; Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps) from Darren Wright; United States Geologial Survey (USGS) from Pete Dartnell and from David Finlayson; University of Texas at Austin (UT) from Randy Bucciarielli and from Robert Gutierrez.
ESRI geoprocessing history Tool location: C:\ArcGIS\ArcToolbox\Toolboxes\Spatial Analyst Tools.tbx\ExtractByMask Command issued: ExtractByMask la1unclip DEMFullCoverageAreas\la1_fullcoveragearea D:\HazardsModel\DEM\FinalDEMs\CoastalHighRes\DEMs_3m\FinalMosaics\la1final _________________ Spatial data description Raster dataset information Raster format: GRID SDTS raster type: Grid Cell Number of raster bands: 1 Raster properties Origin location: Upper Left Has pyramids: FALSE Has colormap: FALSE Data compression type: Default Display type: matrix values Cell information Number of cells on x-axis: 7317 Number of cells on y-axis: 8160 Number of cells on z-axis: 1 Number of bits per cell: 32 Cell Size X distance: 3.000000 Y distance: 3.000000 _________________
(Summary) Performed by Patrick Barnard and Dan Hoover: ArcGIS was the primary software used for DEM construction. For each individual DEM, the native data sets were mosaiced into a single grid to preserve the original surfaces as closely as possible. Prior to mosaicing, data sets were gridded and/or resampled to 3 m resolution (if necessary), and their spatial extents modified according to the following guidelines: 1. Data sets of comparable quality (for example, overlapping multibeam data) or where relative data quality could not be determined (for example, older multibeam and recent but lower resolution personal-watercraft data, were not clipped. In these instances the overlapping regions were blended together using the Blend algorithm in the Mosaic to New Raster tool in Arc Toolbox. 2. In overlapping regions where the quality of one data set was clearly inferior to the other (for example, IfSAR overlapping with Lidar), the spatial extent of the inferior data set was clipped so there was minimal overlap, typically about ~10-30 m, with the superior data set. The overlapping regions then were smoothed together using the Blend algorithm. This range of overlap was found to be the most efficient for ensuring a smooth transition between data sets while minimizing the use the of data set of inferior quality.
(Detailed) Performed by Patrick Barnard and Dan Hoover: 1. Divide study area into ~10 km alongshore segments A. Define DEM coverage area/polygon that extends ~10 km alongshore from -20 m isobath to 20 m topographic contour or 750 m from back beach, whichever is longer B. Ensure that adjacent DEM coverage areas overlap by ~ 250 m C. Cut off DEMs at county boundaries with ~500 m overlap 2. Acquire most recent or highest resolution data sets in DEM coverage areas (Figure 2) A. Lidar B. Multibeam bathymetry C. Local high-resolution beach topography (usually ATV-acquired) and nearshore bathymetry (usually PWC-acquired) D. IfSAR 3. Fill gaps with older/lower resolution data sets A. Lidar (for example, NOAA Digital Coast, 1997-98) B. NOAA lower-resolution multibeam (for example, Los Angeles Harbor entrance) C. Regional, lower resolution DEMs (for example, NOAA Santa Barbara Channel 10-m DEM) 4. Convert all data sets into identical horizontal coordinate system, vertical datum, and grid resolution A. Horizontal coordinate system: UTM NAD 83 Zone 11 North B. Vertical Datum: NAVD88 -If different (usually MLLW), convert using local NOAA tide station information (<http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/>) based on survey metadata C. Grid resolution: 3 m -If already gridded at higher or < 10 m resolution, resample to 3 m using bilinear interpolation -If already gridded at resolution of =10 m, export as xyz, re-import as xyz, create TIN (triangular irregular network), create 3 m grid from TIN using linear interpolation of the TIN triangles, clip to survey extent -If ungridded then for: -Lidar (topography): 3 m grid using natural neighbor interpolation to preserve abrupt elevation changes (for example, beaches backed by cliffs) -Multibeam: 3 m grid using inverse distance weighting using "Average Gridder" in Fledermaus- ideal for data sets > 10 million points -Lower resolution surveys (for example, personal waterscraft-collected bathymetry): create TIN from points then convert to 3 m grid using linear interpolation of the TIN triangles 5. Clip data sets to DEM/coverage needs, if necessary A. Useful for data management and processing efficiency B. Necessary for very large data sets, such as county-wide IfSAR or very large Lidar data sets (for example, Los Angeles County) C. Clip ocean and waves from topographic Lidar and IfSAR -Clip water level by determining sea level at time of survey then using "Extract by Attributes" tool in Arc Toolbox -Clip wave crests manually with mask 6. Manage overlapping data sets A. Data sets allowed to overlap extensively only if they are of comparable quality, otherwise minimal (~10-30 m) overlap to ensure smooth DEM transitions B. Clip IfSAR data (lower quality) to minimal overlap with topographic Lidar (better quality) C. Clip low-resolution data sets gridded to higher resolution, such as Personal Watercraft data and regional DEMs, to minimal overlap with adjacent high-resolution data sets (usually multibeam and topographic Lidar) D. Extensive overlap between adjacent Lidar and multibeam data sets rare but allowed as quality is comparable 7. Fill in data gaps between high-resolution data sets A. If no high-resolution data exist between the 10 m isobath and coastal Lidar, or in protected harbors/embayments or other areas where interpolation from surrounding data sets will create a surface unlikely to accurately reflect actual bathymetry/topography, fill in with regional DEMs or other low-resolution data sets. Otherwise interpolate across gaps. -Filling in with regional DEMs/other low-resolution data: -Clip best available regional DEM to fill gap with minimal overlap (~10-30 m) with adjacent high resolution data sets -Export clipped grid as xyz, reimport as points, create tin, create 3 m grid from tin, clip to gap extent -Interpolation -Create preliminary DEM using Mosaic tool with the following settings: Coordinate System: UTM Zone 11 North Pixel Type: 32_Bit_Float Cell Size: 3 Mosaic Method: Blend Mosaic Color Map: Last -Create mask of data gap(s) to fill with minimal overlap with preliminary DEM surface -Clip preliminary DEM with mask, export clipped grid as xyz, reimport as points, create tin, create 3 m grid from tin, clip to gap extent 8. Compile final DEMs A. Load all data sets for DEM B. Verify all significant data gaps filled (few missing cells OK) in DEM coverage area C. Build DEM using Mosaic to New Raster tool in ArcGIS with same setting as in Item #7 D. Clip DEM to DEM coverage area E. Create contours and plot cross-shore profiles to verify data quality and consistency
Horizontal coordinate system Projected coordinate system name: NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_11N Geographic coordinate system name: GCS_North_American_1983
Bounding coordinates Horizontal In decimal degrees West: -118.239274 East: -117.999280 North: 33.918479 South: 33.695581 In projected or local coordinates Left: 385440.225447 Right: 407391.225447 Top: 3753569.022415 Bottom: 3729089.022415
Although these data have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data.
The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of this data, software, or related materials.