USGS

Open File Report 03–348

Flow Velocity, Water Temperature, and Conductivity in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: August 2001-June 2002

By Ami L. Riscassi and Raymond W. Schaffranek


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Table Of Contents

Abstract
Introduction
Description of Study Area and Monitoring Program
Purpose and Scope of Report
Acknowledgments
Selection and Description of Flow-Monitoring Sites
Methods
Measurement Techniques
Deployment Techniques and Parameter Settings
Processing Flow-Velocity, Conductivity and Tempurature Data
ADV Flow Data
MicroCAT Conductivity and Tempurature Data
Thermistor String Tempurature Profile Data
Flow-Velocity, Conductivity, and Tempurature Data Summary
Flow-Velocity Data
Conductivity and Tempurature Data
Temperature Profile Data
Data Availablity
Summary
References Cited
Appendix A. Daily mean flow velocities and water depths at station SH1, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida during the 2001-2002 wet season
Appendix B. Daily mean flow velocities, water-temperatures, specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida during the 2001-2002 wet season
Appendix C. Daily mean flow velocities, water-temperatures, specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida during the 2001-2002 wet season

Figure List

Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.

Table List

Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table A-1.
Table A-2.
Table A-3.
Table A-4.
Table B-1.
Table B-2.
Table B-3.
Table B-4.
Table B-5.
Table C-1.
Table C-2.
Table C-3.
Table C-4.
Table C-5.

Conversion Factors, Abbreviations, and Horizontal Datum

Divide By To obtain
Length
millimeter (mm) 25.4 inch (in)
centimeter (cm) 2.54 inch (in)
meter (m) 0.3048 foot (ft)
kilometer (km) 1.609 mile (mi)
Velocity
centimeter per second (cm/s) 30.48 foot per second (ft/s)

Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) may be converted to degrees Fahrenheit (°F) as follows: °F=(1.8x°C)+32

Direction of flow is reported in degrees clockwise from magnetic north (°CW from MN).
Frequency of velocity measurements is reported in hertz (Hz).
Salinity is reported in parts per thousand (ppt).
Signal-to-Noise ratio is reported in decibels (dB).
Specific conductance is reported in microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm).
Horizontal coordinates are referenced to North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83).

Abstract

The data-collection effort described in this report is in support of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Place-Based Studies project investigating "Forcing Effects on Flow Structure in Vegetated Wetlands of the Everglades." Data collected at four locations in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, during the 2001-2002 wet season are documented in the report and methods used to process the data are described. Daily mean flow velocities, water temperatures, and specific conductance values are presented in the appendices of the report. The quality-checked and edited data have been compiled and stored on the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website http://sofia.usgs.gov.

Introduction

A major thrust of the Everglades restoration effort, according to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan available on the website http://www.evergladesplan.org, is to restore the natural functioning of the ecosystem to pre-drainage conditions. This objective requires detailed knowledge of the hydrologic and hydraulic factors that affect the natural flow of water through the Everglades wetlands. The heterogeneous vegetation, small topographic gradient, microtopography, and ridge-and-slough structure of the landscape variously affect flows through the vast mosaic of sloughs, marshes, and wet prairies that make up the Everglades. The data collected in this project document the temporal and spatial variability of the extremely low velocity of shallow water in the heterogeneous wetlands and provide insight into the hydrologic and hydraulic processes that affect its flow through the low-gradient landscape. Shark River Slough is the dominant path of surface-water flow in Everglades National Park (ENP) (fig. 1). It conveys freshwater inflows discharged through culverts and hydraulic control structures along Tamiami Trail to the coastal mangrove ecotone of the southwest Gulf Coast of Florida. Flow-velocity, water-temperature, and conductivity data collected in Shark River Slough during August 2001 through June 2002 (2001-2002 wet season) are presented in this report. These data supplement the data collected during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 wet seasons documented by Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002).

Everglades Photo

Photograph courtesy D. Briane Adams, retired USGS.

Description of Study Area and Monitoring Program

The freshwater wetlands of Shark River Slough are a mixture of tree islands, sawgrass marshes, wet prairies, and sloughs that variously affect the conveyance of water to the coastal mangrove ecotone. Flow velocities and (or) related hydrologic parameters were monitored at four sites (SH1, GS-203, GS-33, and NP202) in Shark River Slough with differing vegetative characteristics (fig. 1). At all four sites, temperatures were monitored in the plant litter, throughout the water column, on the water surface, and in the air above the water column using thermistors (thermally sensitive resistors). At three of the sites (SH1, GS-203, and GS-33), flow velocities were monitored bi-hourly at a fixed point in the water column using acoustic Doppler velocity (ADV) meters. At two of the three ADV monitoring sites (GS-203 and GS-33), conductivities and water temperatures were monitored bi-hourly at a fixed point in the water column using water-quality probes.

Satellite image of Everglades National Park

Figure 1. Satellite image of south Florida showing locations of monitoring stations SH1, GS-203, GS-33, and NP202 in Everglades National Park, 1:500,000 scale.

Purpose and Scope of Report

The data collected in the 2001-2002 wet season, as proc-essed and presented in this report, are intended to supplement the data documented in Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002) for the 1999-2001 wet seasons. This report identifies the deployment specifications, describes the data-processing techniques, and presents the flow-velocity and related hydrologic data collected at four monitoring sites. Daily mean flow speeds and directions, specific conductance values, and water temperatures are listed in the report appendices. Quality-checked and edited data are available for downloading from the Data Exchange page of the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website http://sofia.usgs.gov.

Acknowledgments

Gordon Anderson, USGS, provided ancillary stage data from the SH1 hydrologic monitoring station. Kevin Kotun, National Park Service (NPS)/ENP, provided ancillary stage data from the NP203 and P33 hydrologic monitoring stations. Edward German and Sandra Kinnaman, both of USGS, provided meteorological data from the P33 and SH1 evapotranspiration stations for flow analyses. Edward Simonds, USGS, provided logistical and technical support. Michael Duff, formerly of the USGS, developed the ADV filtering and plotting programs used to process, analyze, and display the flow-velocity data.

Selection and Description of Flow-Monitoring Sites

Locations of the flow-velocity and water-temperature monitoring stations SH1, GS-203, GS-33, and NP202 are shown in figure 1. Thermistor strings were deployed at all four sites. ADV units were deployed at SH1, GS-203, and GS-33. The ADV units at GS-203 and GS-33 were equipped with integrated MicroCAT conductivity/temperature probes. Sites SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 were established in differing vegetative communities as previously described in Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002). The ADV unit installed at GS-33 in August 2001 was intended to provide flow-velocity data to supplement water and air temperature profiling initiated at the site during the 2000-2001 wet season (Riscassi and Schaffranek, 2002). In August 2001, a thermistor string was deployed at the ENP NP202 hydrologic station (fig. 2) to monitor the temperature profile in an area of dense cattails. Site locations and instrumentation deployed at the sites during the 2001-2002 wet season are identified in table 1 for all four monitoring stations.

Thermistor string in Shark River Slough

Figure 2. Thermistor string (attached to PVC pipe in center background indicated by arrow) deployed in a dense cattail area at NP202 in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida.

Table 1. Site locations and instrumentation for flow-velocity and water-temperature monitoring stations, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

[UTM, Universal Transverse Mercator; NAD, North American Datum; m, meter; ADV, Acoustic Doppler Velocity]

Site Name UTM Coordinates NAD 83, Zone 17 Location Instrumentation
East (m) North (m)
GS-203 526133 2833920 160 m from NP203 hydrologic station at 22.7 degrees west of south ADV unit, MicroCAT meter, thermistor string, data logger, solar panel
GS-33 529637 2833457 440 m from P33 hydrologic station at 30.6 degrees west of north ADV unit, MicroCAT meter, thermistor string, data logger, solar panel
SH1 515249 2817258 10 m southwest of SH1 hydrologic station ADV unit, thermistor string, data logger, solar panel
NP202 529245 2838450 Co-located with NP202 hydrologic station Thermistor string, data logger, solar panel

Methods

Methods developed to measure the flow velocity, temperature, and conductivity are identical to those defined in Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002). A brief description of the measurement techniques and a summary of the deployment techniques and critical parameter settings for the instrumentation are provided in this section of the report.

Measurement Techniques

Flow velocities were measured at a fixed point in the water column using SonTek/YSI 10 MHz ADVField units (Sontek, 2001). Conductivity and temperature data were measured near the top of the litter layer using MicroCAT model SBE 37-SI meters developed by Sea-Bird Electronics (Sea-Bird Electronics, 1999). Temperatures were measured at 5-, 15-, or 30-minute intervals in the plant litter, at 5- or 10-cm-depth increments throughout the water column, on the water surface, and in the air above the water column using glass-encapsulated thermistors manufactured by Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) (Yellow Springs Instruments, 1998). Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002) present detailed descriptions of the instrumentation, including accuracy and resolution specifications.

Deployment Techniques and Parameter Settings

Deployment techniques and procedures used for the 2001-2002 wet season were the same as those documented in Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002) for the 1999-2001 wet seasons. ADV-deployment parameter settings at SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 are provided in table 2. MicroCAT meters were deployed 6 and 13 cm above the plant-litter layer near the ADV meters at GS-33 and GS-203, respectively. Thermistor positions, in relation to the top of the plant-litter layer, and temperature recording intervals at all four monitoring sites are listed in table 3. The ADV recording interval and sample volume location, relative to the top of the plant-litter layer, are provided in table 4 for each ADV deployment. Approximate water depths determined from water levels recorded at nearby hydrologic stations also are listed in table 4.

Table 2. Deployment parameter settings for SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 ADV units, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

[min, minute; Temp, temperature; °C, degrees Celsius; ppt, parts per thousand; Vel, velocity; cm/s, centimeter per second; Coord, Coordinate; EDT, Eastern Daylight Time; EST, Eastern Standard Time; ENU, geodetic East North Up; XYZ, Cartesian coordinates].

Deployment Parameters
Deployment period1 Recording interval (min) Temp(°C) Salinity (ppt) Vel range (cm/s) Coord system
SH1 2001-2002 wet season
08/15/01 1500 - 10/10/01 1300 EDT 30 25 0.0 +/- 250 ENU
10/11/01 1130 - 11/06/01 1230 EDT 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
11/08/01 1000 - 01/23/02 1500 EST 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
01/24/02 1500 - 02/12/02 1230 EST 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
GS-203 2001-2002 wet season
08/09/01 1330 - 08/15/01 1530 EDT 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 XYZ
08/16/01 1100 - 10/10/01 1400 EDT 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 XYZ
10/11/02 1030 - 11/06/01 1130 EDT 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 XYZ
11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1600 EST 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
01/24/02 1505 - 02/12/02 13352 EST 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
GS-33 2001-2002 wet season
08/09/01 1600 - 08/15/01 1530 EDT 30 30 0.0 +/- 250 XYZ
08/16/01 1000 - 10/10/01 1530 EDT 30 30 0.0 +/- 250 XYZ
10/11/01 1600 - 11/06/01 1000 EDT 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1630 EST 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU
01/25/02 0915 - 02/12/02 14452 EST 30 25 0.0 +/- 10 ENU

1 Excludes any invalid data segments at beginning and end of deployment record.
2 Data collection inadvertently initiated at non-multiple time interval.

Table 3. Deployment specifications and parameter settings for SH1, GS-203, GS-33, and NP202 thermistor strings, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

[min, minute; cm, centimeter; EDT, Eastern Daylight Time; EST, Eastern Standard Time]

Deployment Period Recording interval (min) Thermistor height1 (cm)
SH1 2001-2002 wet season
08/15/01 1350 - 10/11/01 1050 EDT 5 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 110
10/11/01 1055 - 11/06/01 1245 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 110
11/06/01 1250 - 01/23/02 1155 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 110
01/23/02 1200 - 02/12/02 1230 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 110
02/12/02 1245 - 07/25/02 08302 EST 15 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 110
GS-203 2001-2002 wet season
08/08/01 1800 - 10/11/01 0930 EDT 30 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface
10/26/01 1810 - 11/06/01 1155 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface
11/06/01 1200 - 01/23/02 1540 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface
01/23/02 1545 - 02/12/02 1410 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface
02/12/02 1415 - 06/27/02 08453 EST 15 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface
GS-33 2001-2002 wet season
08/08/01 1630 - 10/11/01 0830 EDT 30 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface 6
10/11/01 0910 - 11/06/01 1030 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface 6
11/06/01 1035 - 01/06/02 0210 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface 6
01/23/02 1705 - 02/12/02 1515 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface 6
02/12/02 1530 - 06/27/02 11154 EST 15 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 55, 65, water surface 6
NP202 2001-2002 wet season
08/10/01 1130 - 10/10/01 1440 EDT 5 0, 10, 207, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, water surface
10/10/01 1445 - 11/06/01 1105 EDT 5 0, 10, 208, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, water surface
11/06/01 1110 - 01/24/02 1620 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, water surface
01/24/02 1625 - 02/13/02 0835 EST 5 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, water surface
02/13/02 0840 - 06/27/02 12455 EST 15 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, water surface

1 Measured from 1-2 cm below top of plant-litter layer.
2 All thermistors out of water from approximately 04/04/02 - 06/02/02.
3 All thermistors out of water from approximately 03/18/02 - 06/02/02.
4 All thermistors out of water from approximately 03/18/02 - 06/02/02.
5 All thermistors out of water from approximately 03/24/02 - 06/01/02.
6 Floating water-surface thermistor hung on vegetation, therefore not measuring water temperature.
7 No data recorded for thermistor 9/7/01 0835 - 10/10/01 1440 due to communications failure.
8 No data recorded for thermistor 10/10/01 1130 - 10/29/01 0310 due to communications failure.

Table 4. ADV data-collection summaries for SH1, GS-203, and GS-33, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

[min, minute; cm, centimeter; avg, average; EDT, Eastern Daylight Time; EST, Eastern Standard Time]

Deployment period1 Recording interval (min) Sample volume location above top of litter (cm) Approximate water depth range (avg) (cm)
SH1 2001-2002 wet season
08/15/01 1500 - 10/10/01 1300 EDT 30 22 37 - 68 (50)
10/11/01 1130 - 11/06/01 1230 EDT 30 22 56 - 65 (61)
11/08/01 1000 - 01/23/02 1500 EST 30 22 41 - 59 (50)
01/24/02 1500 - 02/12/02 1230 EST 30 22 31 - 40 (35)
GS-203 2001-2002 wet season
08/09/01 1330 - 08/15/01 1530 EDT 30 15 27 - 29 (28)
08/16/01 1100 - 10/10/01 1400 EDT 30 27 27 - 56 (39)
10/11/02 1030 - 11/06/01 1130 EDT 30 27 50 - 61 (55)
11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1600 EST 30 27 26 - 56 (46)
01/24/02 1505 - 02/12/02 1335 2 EST 30 10 19 - 25 (22)
GS-33 2001-2002 wet season
08/09/01 1600 - 08/15/01 1530 EDT 30 10 30 - 31 (30)
08/16/01 1000 - 10/10/01 1530 EDT 30 10 31 - 60 (42)
10/11/01 1600 - 11/06/01 1000 EDT 30 26 50 - 61 (54)
11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1630 EST 30 26 30 - 56 (46)
01/25/02 0915 - 02/12/02 1445 2 EST 30 13 24 - 29 (26)

1 Excludes any invalid data segments at beginning and end of deployment record.
2 Data collection inadvertently initiated at non-multiple time interval.

Processing Flow-Velocity, Conductivity, and Temperature Data

In post-processing the flow-velocity, conductivity, and temperature data, factors such as instrument accuracies and environmental difficulties associated with the wetland deployments were considered in the development of applicable processing techniques. The techniques and editing criteria used to quality check and verify the data are summarized in the following report sections.

ADV Flow Data

The techniques used to process ADV data collected during the 2001-2002 wet season are a continuation of methods developed and documented previously in Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002). A preliminary data-inspection process, a pre-editing data-conversion process, a quantitative data-editing process, and a qualitative inspection process were used to edit, verify, and otherwise process the recorded flow-velocity data. Specific deployment parameter settings used to collect the data and post-processing corrections applied to edit the data are provided in table 5.

Editing and filtering criteria used to process the ADV data for the 2001-2002 wet season include those suggested by the instrument manufacturer to detect suspect data attributed to poor signal quality (SonTek, 2001) and those developed during the processing and concurrent analysis of past ADV data (Ball and Schaffranek, 2000; Riscassi and Schaffranek, 2002). The equipment manufacturer suggests minimum signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and statistical-correlation values of 5 dB and 70 percent, respectively, as indicative of good acoustic signal quality (SonTek, 2001). SNR values are derived from acoustic signal strengths measured during the deployment and the ambient electronics noise of the particular ADV meter used. SNR values are used to verify that particulate matter of appropriate size and concentration was present in the water column to produce a reflected acoustic signal that was sufficiently stronger than the ambient instrument noise. Particulate matter concentrations at the ADV measurement sites yielded average signal amplitudes of 84, 96, and 94 counts at GS-203, GS-33, and SH1, respectively, for all deployments. Ambient instrument noise levels of the ADV units deployed at GS-203, GS-33, and SH1 were 66, 72, and 84 counts, respectively. Thus, average SNR values were approximately 8 dB (range 5-20 dB) at GS-203, 10 dB (range 5-25 dB) at GS-33, and 5 dB (range 2-12 dB) at SH1 during all deployments. although SNR values were computed for each burst for all ADV deployments, they were not used as a quantitative automated data-editing criterion. Instead, they were used in the qualitative editing processes as a means to evaluate the reliability of data that passed the quantitative filter criterion but were deemed potentially erroneous or suspect in comparison to other flow speeds and directions measured during the deployment period.

Data that passed the preliminary data inspection and validation process were first processed to correct for coordinate-system conversions and sound-speed re-calculations prior to quantitative automated data editing. The initial automated data-editing process consisted of the application of two filter criteria, one based on a minimal statistical correlation for each sample and the other on minimal number of valid samples per burst. A minimum correlation value of 70 percent was used as the statistical-filtering criterion. The number used for the minimum samples-per-burst criterion was determined by examination and assessment of plots of burst-averaged velocities generated using various values of 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, and 1 (i.e., no minimum) in processing ADV data sets from the SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 sites. As was determined for the 1999-2001 data sets, the 100-minimum filter criterion appeared too inclusive of suspect data and the 300-minimum criterion appeared overly exclusive of apparently valid data. Consequently, for the 10-Hz 1-minute burst sampling conducted at all three ADV sites, a criterion of 200 was determined to be the most appropriate minimum samples-per-burst filter and it was subsequently used to process all ADV data sets. Differences between daily mean horizontal flow velocities computed using the most liberal criterion, one minimum sample, and all others (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600) were found to be small in sensitivity tests conducted with past data (Riscassi and Schaffranek, 2002) and data documented in this report. (For the November 2001 through January 2002 deployments at SH1, GS-203, and GS-33, average maximum mean-daily velocity differences using all seven samples-per-burst filters were calculated. Average maximum differences of 0.11, 0.03, and 0.009 cm/s were found with the largest maximum differences being 0.84, 0.42, and 0.10 cm/s, respectively.)

A secondary qualitative processing technique included the generation of plots of filtered data to detect any remaining anomalous horizontal flow speeds and directions. The qualitative inspection resulted in the removal of 5 percent of velocity bursts from all deployments at SH1 and 2 percent of velocity bursts from all GS-203 deployments, which included a 14-day period when water levels fell below the transducer of the ADV probe. For all valid deployments at GS-33, 19 percent of the velocity bursts were removed in the qualitative analyses, which included a 9-day period when water levels fell below the transducer of the ADV probe. Bursts that did not pass the qualitative inspection process were deleted and daily mean horizontal-flow speeds and directions were recalculated. The percentages of data that did not pass both the quantitative automated-filter and qualitative-analysis processes for each ADV deployment period are presented with daily mean flow summaries in appendix tables A, B, and C. The subsequent removal of individual velocity bursts by qualitative analysis did not significantly change the resultant daily mean velocity magnitudes or flow directions.

Table 5. Post-processing changes to ADV deployment parameter settings for SH1, GS-203, and GS-33, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

[°C, degrees Celsius; ppt, part per thousand; EDT, Eastern Daylight Time; EST, Eastern Standard Time; ENU, geodetic East North Up; XYZ, Cartesian coordinates]

Deployment period1 Temperature Salinity Coordinate system
Old ( °C) New ( °C) Old (ppt) New (ppt) Old New
SH1 2001-2002 wet season
08/15/01 1500 - 10/10/01 1300 EDT 25 30 0.0 0.10 ENU -
10/11/01 1130 - 11/06/01 1230 EDT 25 26 0.0 0.10 ENU -
11/08/01 1000 - 01/23/02 1500 EST 25 23 0.0 0.10 ENU -
01/24/02 1500 - 02/12/02 1230 EST 25 24 0.0 0.10 ENU -
GS-203 2001-2002 wet season
08/09/01 1330 - 08/15/01 1530 EDT 25 31 0.0 0.17 XYZ ENU
08/16/01 1100 - 10/10/01 1400 EDT 25 30 0.0 0.17 XYZ ENU
10/11/02 1030 - 11/06/01 1130 EDT 25 23 0.0 0.19 XYZ ENU
11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1600 EST 25 22 0.0 0.22 ENU -
01/24/02 1505 - 02/12/02 13352 EST 25 23 0.0 0.26 ENU -
GS-33 2001-2002 wet season
08/09/01 1600 - 08/15/01 1530 EDT 30 31 0.0 0.22 XYZ ENU
08/16/01 1000 - 10/10/01 1530 EDT 30 29 0.0 0.22 XYZ ENU
10/11/01 1600 - 11/06/01 1000 EDT 25 25 0.0 0.22 ENU -
11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1630 EST 25 22 0.0 0.26 ENU -
01/25/02 0915 - 02/12/02 14452 EST 25 22 0.0 0.26 ENU -

1 Excludes any invalid data segments at beginning and end of deployment record.
2 Data collection inadvertently initiated at non-multiple time interval.

MicroCAT Conductivity and Temperature Data

Temperatures measured by the MicroCAT meter near the top of the plant-litter layer at GS-203 and GS-33 were compared to temperatures measured by the thermistor in the temperature string at approximately the same depth in the water column. Good agreement was found for all deployments. No anomalies were found in the MicroCAT temperature data; therefore, the data are made available on the SOFIA website as originally recorded. Daily mean temperatures, derived from data measured by the MicroCAT meters at GS-203 and GS-33, are reported in appendix tables B and C, respectively.

Conductivity data measured by the MicroCAT meter were compared to conductivity measurements taken with a hand-held portable YSI Model 30 meter during field visits. Good agreement was found between the YSI conductivity measurements and MicroCAT data at both GS-203 and GS-33 (fig. 3 and fig. 4). No anomalies were found in MicroCAT conductivity data; therefore, the data are made available on the SOFIA website as originally recorded. Daily mean specific conductance values calculated from conductivities recorded at GS-203 and GS-33 are reported in appendix tables B and C, respectively. Conductivity data are recorded in siemens per meter and converted to specific conductance in microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm) for reporting purposes as documented in Riscassi and Schaffranek (2002).

Conductivities measured by MicroCAT probe and by hand-held YSI meter at GS-203

Figure 3. Conductivities measured continuously by MicroCAT probe and intermittently by hand-held YSI meter at GS-203 in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida. (S/m = siemens per meter)

Conductivities measured by MicroCAT probe and by hand-held YSI meter at GS-33

Figure 4. Conductivities measured continuously by MicroCAT probe and intermittently by hand-held YSI meter at GS-33 in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida. (S/m = siemens per meter)

Thermistor String Temperature Profile Data

All temperature profile data from the thermistor strings were plotted and inspected for anomalies. Temperatures from the thermistor closest to the height of the MicroCAT probe above the litter layer also were compared to the MicroCAT recorded temperatures. No suspect data were found in the visual inspection or MicroCAT comparisons. Times when all thermistors were out of the water, thus measuring only air temperatures, are identified in table 3. Temperature profile data documented in this report are available on the SOFIA website.

Flow-Velocity, Conductivity, and Temperature Data Summary

The following report sections summarize the data collected at all four monitoring sites, SH1, GS203, GS33, and NP202, for all deployments during the 2001-2002 wet season. Daily mean flow velocities measured by ADV meters, MicroCAT measured temperatures, and specific conductances derived from MicroCAT measured conductivities are reported in Appendices A, B, and C.

Flow-Velocity Data

Valid flow-velocity data were not obtained from two ADV deployments at GS-33 during the 2001-2002 wet season. During the first two deployments at GS-33 (table 2), the velocity range setting for the ADV meter reverted to the instrument default of ±250 cm/s, instead of a more appropriate setting of ±10 cm/s, making the probe less sensitive to detecting very small velocities. As a consequence, no valid velocity data are available from these two deployments. For the initial deployment at SH1 the ADV meter also defaulted to a ±250 cm/s range setting, however, the recorded ADV data were not found to be appreciably noisy and were successfully qualitatively filtered to extract a valid set of flow velocities.

Vectors showing velocity magnitudes and flow directions in the horizontal plane, relative to magnetic north, measured during the 2001-2002 wet season at sites SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 are illustrated in figure 5, figure 6, and figure 7, respectively. Horizontal velocity magnitudes generally ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 cm/s at SH1 (fig. 5), from 0.4 to 1.8 cm/s at GS-203 (fig. 6), and from 0.02 to 1.5 cm/s at GS-33 (fig. 7). Horizontal flow directions at all locations generally ranged from 180 to 275 degrees, clockwise with respect to magnetic north (MN). (Declination corrections to Geodetic North are less than the +/- 2 degree accuracy of the ADV compass and, therefore, are not applied to the MN coordinates reported herein.) Horizontal flow directions averaged approximately 235 degrees at SH1, 251 degrees at GS-203, and 194 degrees at GS-33. Corresponding daily mean horizontal-flow velocities are reported in tabular form for SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 in Appendices A, B, and C, respectively.

Burst-averaged flow velocities at SH1

Figure 5. Burst-averaged flow velocities, shown as vectors relative to magnetic north, at SH1 in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, during the 2001-2002 wet season. (cm/s = centimeter per second; MN, magnetic north; negative velocity indicates south direction)

Burst-averaged flow velocities at GS-203

Figure 6. Burst-averaged flow velocities, shown as vectors relative to magnetic north, at GS-203 in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, during the 2001-2002 wet season. (cm/s = centimeter per second; MN, magnetic north; negative velocity indicates south direction)

Burst-averaged flow velocities at GS-33

Figure 7. Burst-averaged flow velocities, shown as vectors relative to magnetic north, at GS-33 in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, during the 2001-2002 wet season. (cm/s = centimeter per second; MN, magnetic north; negative velocity indicates south direction)

Conductivity and Temperature Data

Specific conductance values, which were calculated from measured conductivities, ranged from approximately 281 to 568 µS/cm at GS-203 and from 315 to 594 µS/cm at GS-33. Water temperatures recorded by the MicroCAT meter near the top of the litter layer ranged from approximately 13 to 36 °C during all deployments at GS-203 and from 13 to 38 °C during all deployments at GS-33. During all deployments, temperatures fluctuated several degrees in a daily pattern. Daily mean water temperature and specific conductance values are reported in tabular form for GS-203 and GS-33 in Appendices B and C, respectively.

Temperature Profile Data

Water-column temperatures measured by the thermistor strings for all deployments at all sites ranged from approximately 11 to 38 °C in the 2001-2002 wet season. Daily vertical temperature gradients often approached 3 to 4 °C.

Data Availability

The quality-checked and edited flow-velocity, water-temperature, and specific-conductance data for the 2001-2002 wet season are available on the World Wide Web. Three-dimensional velocity component data (including associated statistical correlation and SNR values for each component), water-temperature, specific conductance, and water- and air-temperature profile data are available for downloading from the Data Exchange page of the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website http://sofia.usgs.gov. Flow-velocity data also are available for downloading from the Data page of the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) website http://time.er.usgs.gov.

Summary

The data-collection effort described in this report is in support of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Place-Based Studies project to investigate "Forcing Effects on Flow Structure in Vegetated Wetlands of the Everglades." The acquisition, processing, and evaluation of flow-velocity, water-temperature, and conductivity data collected at four locations (sites SH1, GS-203, GS-33, and NP202) in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, during the 2001-2002 wet season are documented in this report. Temperatures were monitored at 5-, 15-, or 30-minute intervals throughout the water column at all four sites, 3-D component flow velocities were monitored bi-hourly at a fixed point in the water column at SH1, GS-203, and GS-33, and conductivities and temperatures were monitored bi-hourly near the top of the plant-litter layer at GS-203 and GS-33. Velocity vectors defining horizontal flow speeds and directions measured at sites SH1, GS-203, and GS-33 are illustrated in the report. Mean daily horizontal flow velocities, water temperatures, and specific conductance values are listed in tabular form in the report appendices. The quality-checked and edited data have been compiled and stored on the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) (http://sofia.usgs.gov) and the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) (http://time.er.usgs.gov) websites.

References Cited

Ball, M.H., and Schaffranek, R.W., 2000, Flow-velocity data collected in the wetlands adjacent to canal C-111 in south Florida during 1997 and 1999: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-56, 56 p.

Riscassi, A.L. and Schaffranek, R.W., 2002, Flow velocity, water temperature, and conductivity in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: July 1999 - August 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 02-159, 32 p.

Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., 1999, SBE 37-SI MicroCAT conductivity and temperature recorder with RS-232 Interface: User's manual version # 010, 12/1/99, Bellevue, WA, 41 p.

SonTek, 2001, SonTek ADV acoustic Doppler velocimeter technical documentation: San Diego, CA, 202 p.

Yellow Springs Instruments, 1998, YSI precision thermistors and probes: Yellow Springs, OH, 86 p.


Appendix A

Daily mean flow velocities and water depths at station SH1, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida during the 2001-2002 wet season.


Table A-1. Daily mean flow velocities and water depths at station SH1 during deployment period 08/15/01 1500- 10/10/01 1300

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Water depth (cm)
08/16/01 1.72 215 44
08/17/01 2.01 209 43
08/18/01 1.76 214 42
08/19/01 1.70 212 41
08/20/01 1.82 213 41
08/21/01 2.02 211 42
08/22/01 2.02 211 43
08/23/01 1.35 219 44
08/24/01 1.28 221 43
08/25/01 1.16 226 44
08/26/01 1.33 222 42
08/27/01 1.37 219 41
08/28/01 1.26 222 41
08/29/01 1.41 210 42
08/30/01 1.44 217 41
08/31/01 1.45 217 40
09/01/01 1.57 214 39
09/02/01 1.56 213 39
09/03/01 1.45 212 39
09/04/01 1.25 225 38
09/05/01 1.03 239 38
09/06/01 1.13 239 39
09/07/01 1.11 233 40
09/08/01 1.06 231 41
09/09/01 1.26 226 41
09/10/01 1.35 221 42
09/11/01 1.27 229 44
09/12/01 1.22 230 46
09/13/01 1.15 228 48
09/14/01 1.32 232 51
09/15/01 1.29 240 53
09/16/01 1.38 244 54
09/17/01 1.51 235 54
09/18/01 1.44 235 55
09/19/01 1.44 237 55
09/20/01 1.43 236 55
09/21/01 1.42 238 56
09/22/01 1.42 236 56
09/23/01 1.40 237 56
09/24/01 1.42 238 57
09/25/01 1.33 236 57
09/26/01 1.35 236 57
09/27/01 1.27 241 57
09/28/01 1.20 230 57
09/29/01 1.42 242 66
09/30/01 1.41 245 69
10/01/01 1.32 250 69
10/02/01 1.34 249 68
10/03/01 1.43 247 68
10/04/01 1.37 246 67
10/05/01 1.28 243 66
10/06/01 1.30 241 65
10/07/01 1.28 241 65
10/08/01 1.31 239 64
10/09/01 * * 63
* All bursts filtered out
MINIMUM 1.03 209 38
MAXIMUM 2.02 250 69
AVERAGE 1.40 229 50
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 5
1 Flow sample volume located 22 cm above top of litter.

Table A-2. Daily mean flow velocities and water depths at station SH1 during deployment period 10/11/01 1130 - 11/06/01 1230

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Water depth (cm)
10/12/01 1.35 238 61
10/13/01 1.29 238 60
10/14/01 1.27 240 60
10/15/01 1.51 230 59
10/16/01 1.50 229 59
10/17/01 1.45 231 58
10/18/01 1.49 230 57
10/19/01 1.59 229 57
10/20/01 1.33 238 57
10/21/01 1.40 239 58
10/22/01 1.29 246 63
10/23/01 1.30 247 64
10/24/01 1.29 248 64
10/25/01 1.32 244 65
10/26/01 1.39 244 65
10/27/01 1.39 242 64
10/28/01 0.98 241 64
10/29/01 1.05 245 63
10/30/01 0.94 243 63
10/31/01 0.73 240 63
11/01/01 0.79 251 62
11/02/01 0.98 252 61
11/03/01 1.14 244 61
11/04/01 1.25 239 61
11/05/01 1.31 241 61
MINIMUM 0.73 229 57
MAXIMUM 1.59 252 65
AVERAGE 1.25 240 61
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 5
1 Flow sample volume located 22 cm above top of litter.

Table A-3. Daily mean flow velocities and water depths at station SH1 during deployment period 11/08/01 1000 - 01/23/02 1500

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Water depth (cm)
11/09/01 1.43 237 58
11/10/01 1.34 236 58
11/11/01 1.40 238 57
11/12/01 1.38 238 56
11/13/01 1.34 237 56
11/14/01 1.30 236 55
11/15/01 1.30 235 54
11/16/01 1.30 236 54
11/17/01 1.28 235 53
11/18/01 1.20 232 53
11/19/01 1.20 231 52
11/20/01 1.19 232 52
11/21/01 1.17 235 52
11/22/01 1.14 233 51
11/23/01 1.19 236 51
11/24/01 1.18 236 50
11/25/01 1.13 234 50
11/26/01 1.20 237 49
11/27/01 1.23 239 48
11/28/01 1.23 239 48
11/29/01 1.29 238 48
11/30/01 1.27 237 47
12/01/01 1.22 235 47
12/02/01 1.28 236 47
12/03/01 1.24 233 47
12/04/01 1.22 233 46
12/05/01 1.23 234 46
12/06/01 1.26 234 46
12/07/01 1.25 235 46
12/08/01 1.22 234 46
12/09/01 1.41 236 48
12/10/01 1.61 241 54
12/11/01 1.50 240 54
12/12/01 1.42 239 54
12/13/01 1.39 237 54
12/14/01 1.31 241 54
12/15/01 1.19 246 53
12/16/01 1.23 245 52
12/17/01 1.28 239 51
12/18/01 1.23 237 51
12/19/01 1.22 236 50
12/20/01 1.14 234 52
12/21/01 1.14 234 53
12/22/01 1.08 232 52
12/23/01 1.13 228 52
12/24/01 1.11 230 51
12/25/01 1.25 226 51
12/26/01 0.97 229 51
12/27/01 1.21 223 50
12/28/01 1.24 220 50
12/29/01 1.16 221 49
12/30/01 1.02 224 49
12/31/01 1.09 228 49
01/01/02 0.96 229 49
01/02/02 0.94 242 51
01/03/02 0.91 239 54
01/04/02 1.28 247 53
01/05/02 1.00 246 52
01/06/02 0.80 246 51
01/07/02 0.77 233 51
01/08/02 0.84 228 50
01/09/02 0.81 234 49
01/10/02 0.88 235 49
01/11/02 0.82 238 48
01/12/02 0.80 242 47
01/13/02 0.85 232 47
01/14/02 0.83 229 46
01/15/02 0.85 240 46
01/16/02 0.82 236 45
01/17/02 1.00 234 45
01/18/02 1.14 230 44
01/19/02 1.32 237 43
01/20/02 1.18 221 43
01/21/02 1.25 224 42
01/22/02 1.25 226 42
MINIMUM 0.77 220 42
MAXIMUM 1.61 247 58
AVERAGE 1.16 235 50
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 3
1 Flow sample volume located 22 cm above top of litter.

Table A-4. Daily mean flow velocities and water depths at station SH1 during deployment period 01/24/02 1500 - 02/12/02 1230

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north ]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Water depth (cm)
01/25/02 1.10 248 40
01/26/02 1.04 251 39
01/27/02 1.03 245 39
01/28/02 1.03 247 38
01/29/02 0.93 245 37
01/30/02 1.01 244 37
01/31/02 1.14 249 36
02/01/02 1.34 250 36
02/02/02 1.23 244 35
02/03/02 1.36 251 35
02/04/02 1.48 256 34
02/05/02 1.45 255 34
02/06/02 1.18 260 33
02/07/02 * * 32
02/08/02 1.42 255 32
02/09/02 1.56 261 32
02/10/02 1.54 264 33
02/11/02 1.41 261 33
* all bursts filtered out
MINIMUM 0.93 244 32
MAXIMUM 1.56 264 40
AVERAGE 1.25 252 35
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 13
1 Flow sample volume located 22 cm above top of litter.

Appendix B

Daily mean flow velocities, water-temperatures, specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida during the 2001-2002 wet season.


Table B-1. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203 during deployment period 08/09/01 1330 - 08/15/01 1530

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
08/10/01 1.08 251 31.01 342 29
08/11/01 0.94 247 30.43 331 28
08/12/01 0.88 241 31.06 330 28
08/13/01 0.95 248 31.46 337 27
08/14/01 1.07 251 32.25 340 27
MINIMUM 0.88 241 30.43 330 27
MAXIMUM 1.08 251 32.25 342 29
AVERAGE 0.99 248 31.24 336 28
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 0 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 15 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 13 cm above top of litter.

Table B-2. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203 during deployment period 08/16/01 1100 - 10/10/01 1400

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
08/17/01 1.02 251 32.84 347 28
08/18/01 0.97 251 32.94 346 27
08/19/01 0.95 249 32.73 351 27
08/20/01 0.94 248 32.25 362 27
08/21/01 0.97 248 30.36 366 28
08/22/01 0.97 248 29.55 361 29
08/23/01 0.95 247 30.58 358 29
08/24/01 1.02 251 31.75 360 29
08/25/01 1.17 256 32.32 358 29
08/26/01 1.01 253 32.62 354 29
08/27/01 0.93 252 32.13 349 29
08/28/01 0.88 249 31.83 343 29
08/29/01 0.88 248 32.00 344 29
08/30/01 0.87 247 32.02 347 29
08/31/01 0.87 248 32.15 351 29
09/01/01 0.85 246 31.61 355 29
09/02/01 0.90 248 31.45 360 30
09/03/01 0.88 250 30.93 367 30
09/04/01 0.88 250 30.41 380 31
09/05/01 0.81 249 30.91 399 31
09/06/01 0.83 250 30.88 418 31
09/07/01 0.91 253 29.63 424 32
09/08/01 0.95 255 29.07 425 33
09/09/01 0.91 255 28.55 416 34
09/10/01 0.95 256 28.38 417 34
09/11/01 0.94 256 28.44 405 37
09/12/01 1.12 262 27.57 347 44
09/13/01 0.94 257 27.20 333 43
09/14/01 1.00 251 26.80 328 45
09/15/01 1.07 261 27.23 322 45
09/16/01 1.08 261 28.09 325 44
09/17/01 1.08 259 29.49 326 43
09/18/01 1.07 256 29.75 305 45
09/19/01 0.90 251 29.16 298 46
09/20/01 0.87 248 29.69 306 45
09/21/01 0.87 249 30.54 315 44
09/22/01 0.87 247 30.85 327 43
09/23/01 0.86 249 30.69 334 42
09/24/01 0.85 247 31.02 337 42
09/25/01 0.84 250 31.23 340 41
09/26/01 0.90 254 30.53 346 41
09/27/01 0.98 256 28.68 351 42
09/28/01 1.02 254 27.02 340 44
09/29/01 1.28 261 25.18 295 54
09/30/01 1.17 259 25.49 286 55
10/01/01 1.07 257 26.16 296 54
10/02/01 1.02 258 26.29 299 53
10/03/01 0.95 254 26.68 311 53
10/04/01 0.91 253 27.37 331 54
10/05/01 0.90 252 28.01 351 53
10/06/01 0.81 251 29.30 368 53
10/07/01 0.79 250 30.73 379 52
10/08/01 0.90 253 30.31 385 52
10/09/01 0.96 252 28.01 372 53
MINIMUM 0.79 246 25.18 286 27
MAXIMUM 1.28 262 32.94 425 55
AVERAGE 0.95 252 29.77 350 39
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 0 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 15 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 13 cm above top of litter.

Table B-3. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203 during deployment period 10/11/02 1030 - 11/06/01 1130

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
10/12/01 1.22 248 27.23 374 51
10/13/01 1.19 246 27.07 381 51
10/14/01 1.17 246 27.05 384 51
10/15/01 1.18 247 27.78 390 50
10/16/01 1.16 245 28.67 399 50
10/17/01 1.26 247 28.12 408 50
10/18/01 1.28 248 25.97 413 50
10/19/01 1.27 248 26.08 415 51
10/20/01 1.28 248 26.37 421 52
10/21/01 1.35 247 25.80 400 56
10/22/01 1.43 250 26.19 361 61
10/23/01 1.34 249 27.55 360 60
10/24/01 1.29 248 28.77 369 60
10/25/01 1.29 247 29.45 368 59
10/26/01 1.43 251 28.81 367 59
10/27/01 1.51 252 23.76 367 58
10/28/01 1.46 251 20.26 375 57
10/29/01 1.37 249 21.12 382 56
10/30/01 1.33 250 21.53 380 56
10/31/01 1.31 249 22.40 376 56
11/01/01 1.29 250 23.47 378 55
11/02/01 1.26 250 24.36 384 55
11/03/01 1.26 249 25.26 389 55
11/04/01 1.25 249 24.48 397 55
11/05/01 1.50 253 22.51 391 57
MINIMUM 1.16 245 20.26 360 50
MAXIMUM 1.51 253 29.45 421 61
AVERAGE 1.31 249 25.60 385 55
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 0 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 27 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 13 cm above top of litter.

Table B-4. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203 during deployment period 11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1600

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
11/09/01 1.24 249 22.85 414 56
11/10/01 1.31 250 23.33 423 56
11/11/01 1.25 250 23.79 434 55
11/12/01 1.30 251 24.00 441 55
11/13/01 1.32 250 23.80 452 55
11/14/01 1.30 249 23.93 460 55
11/15/01 1.31 248 23.08 465 55
11/16/01 1.30 250 23.03 468 54
11/17/01 1.31 250 23.59 468 54
11/18/01 1.25 248 23.88 467 54
11/19/01 1.25 248 24.20 460 54
11/20/01 1.23 249 24.62 456 54
11/21/01 1.33 247 24.61 452 54
11/22/01 1.27 247 24.51 453 54
11/23/01 1.22 247 24.27 457 53
11/24/01 1.16 247 24.38 463 53
11/25/01 1.06 248 24.51 467 53
11/26/01 1.18 247 24.60 470 53
11/27/01 1.20 246 24.08 471 53
11/28/01 1.17 246 23.55 470 52
11/29/01 1.15 246 23.40 467 52
11/30/01 1.19 247 23.61 464 52
12/01/01 1.22 246 23.58 463 52
12/02/01 1.20 244 23.88 462 52
12/03/01 1.22 246 24.27 461 52
12/04/01 1.24 246 24.25 461 52
12/05/01 1.27 248 23.93 460 51
12/06/01 1.27 249 23.74 454 52
12/07/01 1.17 247 24.26 448 53
12/08/01 1.09 247 25.24 446 53
12/09/01 1.31 249 25.02 439 53
12/10/01 1.49 252 24.69 426 55
12/11/01 1.37 252 24.97 426 54
12/12/01 1.35 252 25.04 430 54
12/13/01 1.29 251 25.01 431 53
12/14/01 1.22 250 25.38 434 52
12/15/01 1.13 251 25.22 432 51
12/16/01 1.17 251 24.65 433 50
12/17/01 1.17 253 24.46 436 50
12/18/01 1.26 253 24.62 438 49
12/19/01 1.19 253 24.61 435 48
12/20/01 1.29 254 23.37 435 47
12/21/01 1.37 255 20.93 432 46
12/22/01 1.31 255 20.25 434 45
12/23/01 1.31 256 20.50 433 44
12/24/01 1.28 257 21.56 435 43
12/25/01 1.31 257 22.29 436 42
12/26/01 1.28 256 20.37 435 42
12/27/01 1.30 258 17.44 438 41
12/28/01 1.32 259 18.30 440 43
12/29/01 1.29 258 19.80 442 44
12/30/01 1.30 258 20.94 442 44
12/31/01 1.22 259 20.26 437 44
01/01/02 1.21 261 19.65 431 44
01/02/02 1.26 259 19.76 430 44
01/03/02 1.23 259 19.89 431 44
01/04/02 0.93 258 15.77 436 44
01/05/02 0.98 258 14.13 439 44
01/06/02 0.97 261 16.43 442 44
01/07/02 0.93 255 18.13 449 44
01/08/02 1.14 252 15.56 450 44
01/09/02 * * 14.45 459 44
01/10/02 * * 14.85 473 44
01/11/02 * * 16.93 486 40
01/12/02 * * 18.52 497 32
01/13/02 * * 19.67 508 31
01/14/02 * * 20.77 517 31
01/15/02 * * 22.11 520 30
01/16/02 * * 21.72 526 30
01/17/02 * * 22.32 528 29
01/18/02 * * 23.08 531 29
01/19/02 * * 23.56 534 28
01/20/02 * * 23.63 537 28
01/21/02 * * 24.18 540 27
01/22/02 * * 24.40 541 27
* All bursts filtered out
MINIMUM 0.93 244 14.13 414 27
MAXIMUM 1.49 261 25.38 541 56
AVERAGE 1.23 252 22.24 459 47
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 22 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 27 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 13 cm above top of litter.

Table B-5. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-203 during deployment period 01/24/02 1505 - 02/12/02 1335

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
01/25/02 0.59 248 23.48 545 25
01/26/02 0.59 248 23.86 546 25
01/27/02 0.60 249 24.19 546 24
01/28/02 0.57 251 23.85 547 24
01/29/02 0.62 252 23.63 549 23
01/30/02 0.66 252 24.01 547 23
01/31/02 0.69 252 23.91 548 22
02/01/02 0.66 251 23.82 548 22
02/02/02 0.68 250 24.25 550 22
02/03/02 0.66 251 24.89 545 22
02/04/02 0.62 246 23.02 546 21
02/05/02 0.62 242 19.90 549 21
02/06/02 0.62 242 20.29 554 20
02/07/02 0.63 240 21.45 556 20
02/08/02 0.64 244 21.55 557 19
02/09/02 0.64 241 21.68 550 19
02/10/02 0.66 244 22.60 502 22
02/11/02 0.66 246 22.55 499 22
MINIMUM 0.57 240 19.90 493 19
MAXIMUM 0.69 252 24.89 563 25
AVERAGE 0.63 247 22.94 536 22
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 9 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 10 cm above top of litter. 2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 13 cm above top of litter.

Appendix C

Daily mean flow velocities, water-temperatures, specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida during the 2001-2002 wet season.


Table C-1. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33 during deployment period 08/09/01 1600 - 08/15/01 1530

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
08/10/01 * * 30.11 392 31
08/11/01 * * 30.08 399 30
08/12/01 * * 31.09 405 30
08/13/01 * * 31.47 410 30
08/14/01 * * 32.54 409 31
* Probe velocity range set to +-250, all bursts filtered out
MINIMUM 30.08 392 30
MAXIMUM 32.54 410 31
AVERAGE 31.05 403 30
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 100 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 10 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 6 cm above top of litter.

Table C-2. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33 during deployment period 08/16/01 1000 - 10/10/01 1530

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
08/17/01 * * 32.09 459 31
08/18/01 * * 32.54 476 31
08/19/01 * * 32.58 492 31
08/20/01 * * 31.55 505 31
08/21/01 * * 29.71 505 31
08/22/01 * * 29.06 506 32
08/23/01 * * 30.12 505 33
08/24/01 * * 31.78 505 33
08/25/01 * * 32.32 502 34
08/26/01 * * 32.34 508 33
08/27/01 * * 32.04 506 33
08/28/01 * * 31.61 509 33
08/29/01 * * 31.58 513 33
08/30/01 * * 32.22 516 33
08/31/01 * * 32.31 519 33
09/01/01 * * 31.32 522 33
09/02/01 * * 31.23 517 34
09/03/01 * * 30.13 521 34
09/04/01 * * 30.05 498 36
09/05/01 * * 30.47 504 35
09/06/01 * * 30.07 525 35
09/07/01 * * 28.68 523 37
09/08/01 * * 28.50 511 38
09/09/01 * * 28.22 513 38
09/10/01 * * 28.08 512 39
09/11/01 * * 28.67 490 41
09/12/01 * * 27.71 436 47
09/13/01 * * 27.55 435 46
09/14/01 * * 26.97 420 48
09/15/01 * * 27.65 408 49
09/16/01 * * 28.37 411 48
09/17/01 * * 29.30 416 47
09/18/01 * * 29.21 402 48
09/19/01 * * 28.93 410 48
09/20/01 * * 29.54 420 48
09/21/01 * * 30.19 428 47
09/22/01 * * 30.54 443 46
09/23/01 * * 30.17 452 45
09/24/01 * * 30.30 458 45
09/25/01 * * 30.78 459 44
09/26/01 * * 29.99 451 45
09/27/01 * * 28.39 438 46
09/28/01 * * 26.74 430 48
09/29/01 * * 25.00 373 57
09/30/01 * * 25.28 353 59
10/01/01 * * 26.24 330 57
10/02/01 * * 26.46 372 56
10/03/01 * * 26.69 382 55
10/04/01 * * 27.40 388 54
10/05/01 * * 27.86 397 53
10/06/01 * * 29.18 408 53
10/07/01 * * 30.65 421 52
10/08/01 * * 30.11 429 51
10/09/01 * * 28.05 427 52
* Probe velocity range set to +-250, all bursts filtered out
MINIMUM 25.00 330 31
MAXIMUM 32.58 525 59
AVERAGE 29.53 458 42
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 100 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 10 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 6 cm above top of litter.

Table C-3. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33 during deployment period 10/11/01 0900 - 11/06/01 1000

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth scope="col" (cm)
10/12/01 1.16 187 27.31 430 51
10/13/01 1.19 187 27.05 439 51
10/14/01 1.19 187 26.97 447 50
10/15/01 1.15 185 27.81 451 50
10/16/01 1.13 186 28.64 457 50
10/17/01 1.11 185 28.04 461 50
10/18/01 1.12 188 26.15 465 50
10/19/01 1.17 190 26.09 464 51
10/20/01 1.14 189 26.23 461 52
10/21/01 1.13 184 25.81 447 55
10/22/01 1.13 182 26.18 418 60
10/23/01 1.09 184 27.51 412 60
10/24/01 1.01 182 28.67 425 59
10/25/01 1.04 183 29.30 426 59
10/26/01 1.04 183 28.66 431 59
10/27/01 0.99 182 24.16 438 58
10/28/01 1.01 184 20.82 444 57
10/29/01 1.00 183 21.26 454 56
10/30/01 1.00 184 21.70 462 56
10/31/01 1.03 183 22.58 467 55
11/01/01 1.01 181 23.57 467 55
11/02/01 1.04 183 24.51 472 55
11/03/01 1.03 182 25.35 475 54
11/04/01 1.08 181 24.45 475 54
11/05/01 0.97 180 22.54 459 56
MINIMUM 0.97 180 20.82 412 50
MAXIMUM 1.19 190 29.30 475 60
AVERAGE 1.08 184 25.65 450 54
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 2 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 26 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 6 cm above top of litter.

Table C-4. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33 during deployment period 11/08/01 0900 - 01/23/02 1630

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
11/09/01 1.02 181 22.73 469 56
11/10/01 * * 23.12 477 55
11/11/01 * * 23.32 492 55
11/12/01 * * 23.60 503 55
11/13/01 * * 23.64 511 54
11/14/01 * * 23.81 517 54
11/15/01 * * 22.88 522 54
11/16/01 * * 22.97 525 54
11/17/01 * * 23.49 527 54
11/18/01 * * 23.79 525 53
11/19/01 * * 23.98 514 53
11/20/01 * * 24.29 505 53
11/21/01 * * 24.34 505 53
11/22/01 * * 24.09 513 53
11/23/01 * * 23.84 521 53
11/24/01 * * 24.11 529 52
11/25/01 * * 24.25 538 52
11/26/01 * * 24.26 544 52
11/27/01 * * 23.63 550 52
11/28/01 * * 23.27 555 52
11/29/01 * * 23.40 561 51
11/30/01 0.48 192 23.47 568 51
12/01/01 0.58 204 23.29 573 51
12/02/01 0.58 205 23.75 577 51
12/03/01 0.46 200 24.03 580 51
12/04/01 0.59 191 24.03 585 51
12/05/01 0.55 190 23.69 587 51
12/06/01 0.63 185 23.55 580 51
12/07/01 0.85 182 24.22 572 52
12/08/01 0.85 183 24.95 576 52
12/09/01 0.90 184 24.53 570 53
12/10/01 0.85 184 24.49 544 55
12/11/01 0.82 181 24.68 531 54
12/12/01 0.83 184 24.69 536 53
12/13/01 0.80 183 24.77 544 52
12/14/01 0.84 185 25.07 549 52
12/15/01 0.82 186 24.81 558 51
12/16/01 0.81 185 24.39 560 50
12/17/01 0.86 186 24.19 564 49
12/18/01 0.84 188 24.37 568 49
12/19/01 0.81 188 24.34 574 48
12/20/01 0.79 187 22.88 581 47
12/21/01 0.79 191 20.51 582 46
12/22/01 0.79 193 19.82 581 45
12/23/01 0.82 195 20.05 578 45
12/24/01 0.76 195 21.37 577 44
12/25/01 0.66 192 22.00 579 43
12/27/01 0.64 192 17.43 579 42
12/28/01 0.63 193 18.19 577 42
12/29/01 0.60 195 19.32 574 41
12/30/01 0.62 194 20.18 572 40
12/31/01 0.61 201 19.79 565 40
01/01/02 0.59 199 19.61 554 41
01/02/02 0.59 204 19.51 556 40
01/03/02 0.54 206 19.82 546 41
01/04/02 0.57 202 15.66 552 40
01/05/02 0.55 203 14.22 558 39
01/06/02 0.54 202 16.46 558 39
01/07/02 0.49 206 17.90 543 38
01/08/02 0.38 198 15.39 529 37
01/09/02 0.26 193 14.13 524 36
01/10/02 0.29 183 14.34 522 36
01/11/02 0.32 197 16.11 517 35
01/12/02 0.27 193 17.51 516 35
01/13/02 0.28 193 18.62 518 34
01/14/02 * * 20.10 519 34
01/15/02 * * 21.58 521 33
01/16/02 * * 21.43 521 33
01/17/02 * * 21.90 522 32
01/18/02 * * 22.41 524 32
01/19/02 * * 22.79 528 32
01/20/02 * * 22.76 531 31
01/21/02 * * 23.30 532 31
01/22/02 * * 23.53 531 30
* All bursts filtered out
MINIMUM 0.26 181 14.13 469 30
MAXIMUM 1.02 206 25.07 587 56
AVERAGE 0.65 192 21.90 545 46
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 40 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 26 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 6 cm above top of litter.

Table C-5. Daily mean flow velocities, MicroCAT water temperatures and specific conductances, and water depths at station GS-33 during deployment period 01/25/02 0915 - 02/12/02 1445

[cm/s, centimeter per second; ° CW from MN, degrees clockwise from magnetic north; ° C, degrees Celsius; µS/cm, microsiemens per centimeter]

Date Flow velocity1 (cm/s) Flow direction1 (° CW from MN) Temperature2 (° C) Specific conductance2 (µS/cm) Water depth (cm)
01/26/02 0.39 207 23.00 524 28
01/27/02 0.40 210 23.20 523 28
01/28/02 0.41 210 23.27 522 28
01/29/02 0.43 212 23.23 522 27
01/30/02 0.46 212 23.54 524 27
01/31/02 0.45 209 23.40 527 27
02/01/02 0.44 210 23.31 530 26
02/02/02 0.41 214 23.53 533 26
02/03/02 0.39 213 24.30 535 26
02/04/02 0.34 213 22.59 537 26
02/05/02 0.35 214 19.38 542 25
02/06/02 0.37 216 19.86 547 25
02/07/02 0.37 222 20.97 551 25
02/08/02 0.30 210 21.33 551 24
02/09/02 0.29 206 21.38 544 24
02/10/02 0.39 212 22.56 506 26
02/11/02 0.37 216 22.53 520 26
MINIMUM 0.29 206 19.38 506 24
MAXIMUM 0.46 222 24.30 551 28
AVERAGE 0.39 212 22.43 532 26
BURSTS FILTERED OUT (%) 0 0 0
1 Flow sample volume located 13 cm above top of litter.
2 MicroCAT temperature and conductance measured 6 cm above top of litter.



U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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