Notes on Locating and Assigning
Intensities to the Shaking and Damage Descriptions in Lawson (1908)
These footnotes describe how the damage and shaking reports from Lawson (1908) and other sources were used to assign MMI intensities at specific sites. The difficulties of locating the more obscure sites are also indicated. About 60% of the sites are footnoted. The spreadsheet containing the site names, locations, soil-types, page numbers in Lawson (1908), our assigned MMI intensities, a grade for the intensity, and Toppozada and Parke's (1982) MMI intensities can be downloaded.
1. G.A. Waring reports “Near Agenda, in the lowlands, is a cracked area nearly a mile from the river, probably along an old water course; while sand craterlets are scattered through the orchards.” We assigned MMI 7-8. Three miles northwest, “At Spreckels, the movement caused much damage to flumes, sewers, and water-mains,” as well as strongly damaging the 5-story sugar mill. We assigned MMI 8.
2. Agnew State Hospital was one of the most famous wrecks of the 1906 earthquake. 117 inmates and staff were killed when the floors failed, and poor workmanship was widely alleged as a cause. We assigned MMI 8.
3. In Alameda, the majority of the destruction “was confined to … the throw of chimneys and the upper portions of brick walls.” A total of 619 chimneys fell throughout the city. The large chimney at the oil works collapsed, in addition to the roof of a two story building on Park Street. We assigned MMI 7-8.
4. The Alameda County Hospital at Fairmont is called "the County Hospital." It was only slightly damaged; no chimneys were thrown down. We assigned MMI 6.
5. At Albion, James Coyle "was thrown violently to the ground, as were several cattle and horses that were grazing nearby. Large rocks were seemingly squeezed out of the hillside and rolled into the river. Many houses and bridges were thrown down." We assigned MMI 8-9.
6. On Alcatraz Island, “A heavy shock was felt… Objects were overturned in every direction.” We assigned MMI 6.
7. F.E. Matthes reports that “the wagon bridge over Alder Creek, which stood astride of the fault, is a complete wreck. The timbers broke in many places, and the tension rods were twisted and in some cases actually ruptured.” Rock slides and ground cracks were abundant from Alder Creek to Irish Gulch. We assigned MMI 9.
8. Alexander Valley was the site of a bridge across the Russian River that was wrecked by the earthquake. There was extensive cracking on the eastern bank. We assigned MMI 8.
9. Alma and Lexington were inundated by the Lexington Reservoir. There was a large landslide at Alma. We assigned MMI 8-9.
10. The 1896 Post Office map locates the Altruria Post Office north of Santa Rosa, on the road to Mark West Springs. R.S. Holway reports "cracks are said to have opened in the road, and springs to have flowed for a short time." We assigned MMI 7. A mile west, at Fulton Road, D. Butler notes that the damage was very slight. We assigned MMI 6-7.
11. The Alum Rock Hotel was located near the present Visitors Center for Alum Rock Park: "no chimneys were damaged nor had any movable objects been overturned." We assigned MMI 6.
12. The Alameda Sugar Company suffered the most damage in Alvarado. “A 6-inch cast-iron water pipe…broke transversely about 30 feet above the ground,” and the two platforms supporting the molasses tanks fell altogether, resulting in damage to the tanks and the release of more than 1,000,000 pounds of molasses. Nearly all brick chimneys in the village fell. We assigned MMI 8.
13. Alviso suffered fallen chimneys, broken cornices, and cracked walls. “Little serious damage of any kind was to be noted.” There was extensive cracking and settlement in the area between Alviso and Milpitas. We assigned MMI 7.
14. At Andersonia, the Ukiah Dispatch-Democrat reports “Chimneys were tumbled down, ... The earth has many wide fissures … Tops of trees were shaken off, slides were thrown into Eel River, Indian Creek and along Southern Humboldt Lumber Co.’s railroad so that extensive repairs are necessary. The Southern Humboldt Lumber Co.’s dam is also damaged as well as telephone lines and mill. We assigned MMI 8.
15. G.W. Fiscus reports that the damage in Annapolis was widespread. Many buildings and bridges were wrecked, in addition to landslides and the destruction of chimneys. The waters of the Gualala River were thrown out 50 and 60 feet. We assigned MMI 9.
16. In Antioch, E.S. Larsen reports that “about 25 percent [of the chimneys] needed repairing” and that “out of about 12 brick buildings, the tower of the Catholic Church was somewhat damaged, and one rickety old brick building fell. None of the good buildings were damaged.” We assigned MMI 7.
17. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports that “the bluff near Aptos is badly cracked” and a chimney fell through the roof of a summer home. G.A. Waring reports the wagon and railroad bridges as undamaged. We assigned MMI 7. The Day Valley Cemetery, located 0.6 miles north of the Watsonville Road, suffered moderate damage. We assigned MMI 8.
18. The Arcata Union reports that “nearly 30 chimneys were toppled off” in the lower part of Arcata, and that the Union Hotel was “strained.” Neither the Arcata Union nor the Blue Lake Advocate mention the fissure that Lawson report claims “opened in one of the streets … but by night it had closed again.” We assigned MMI 7.
19. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports that “the buildings on Stony Ford Ranch at Aromas … have been thrown down, and the railroad track buried under rock hurled from the quarry.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
20. Baden Station was incorporated into South San Francisco.
21. Bald Hills Post Office was renamed Elder Post Office in 1874.
22. The intensities for Bald Hills, Hower's, Martin's Ferry, Weitchpec, Orleans, Somes Bar, Forks of the Salmon, Gilta Mine, and Brook Mine were obtained from interviews conducted by a medical examiner, Mr. P.L. Young, who only described the earthquake as either “felt” or “heavy.”
23. In Bartlett Springs, “nothing … was reported as having been knocked over, nor was any milk spilt from pans.” We assigned MMI 5.
24. In Bear Valley (San Benito County), "the only noticeable effects ... were the swinging of lamps and the disturbance of water surfaces." We assigned MMI 4-5.
25. G.K. Gilbert reports topped spruces in Bear Valley on Point Reyes, with 1/2 mile of the fault. Some summer cottages sustained little damage other than fallen chimneys, but a barn was wrecked. We assigned MMI 8-9.
26. Beckwourth was renamed "Beckwith" by the US Post Office. The Beckwourth Trail was discovered by Jim Beckwourth in 1850 and led from Reno through the Beckwourth Pass to the town of Beckwourth, and then to Quincy and Marysville.
27. Bell’s Station was located 6 miles west of Pacheco Pass. “No damage was done beyond the loss of milk. High bottles and dishes standing upon shelves were uninjured.” We assigned MMI 5.
28. Bellvale is called "Bellville" by S. Taber: it was a Post Office on the road between La Honda and San Gregorio. There was a substantial landslide that blocked the road. We assigned MMI 8.
29. A majority of the chimneys fell in Belmont, and “there were small landslides along the road leading from Belmont to Crystal Springs Lake…In the foothills between Belmont and San Mateo, the brick building of the Crocker Orphanage was completely ruined.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
30. In Benicia, T.J.J. See reports that two or three houses collapsed and more than half of the city’s chimneys were thrown down. At the entrance to the Arsenal grounds, the Gate House (a round tower 12 feet in diameter, constructed of brick on a solid foundation) suffered severe cracks in its walls. We assigned MMI 8.
31. Bennett Valley lies to the southeast of Santa Rosa. Only an "occasional chimney" was damaged. We assigned MMI 6-7.
32. The 1896 Post Office map locates Berdan Post Office between Forest Ranch and West Branch, but east of Cohasset.
33. In Berkeley, A.C. Lawson reports that “a large majority of brick chimneys were broken or overthrown, … several brick buildings had their upper walls thrown down.” However, “the buildings on the University Campus … sustained no serious damage.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
34. In Berryessa Valley, “The shock is reported to have been quite heavy on the level land of the valley-bottom.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
35. A sawmill owner reported that there were no landslides on the road between the Big Basin and Boulder Creek and that he had seen only one crack where the earth had begun to slide. A separate report states that near the junction of the road leading from Boulder Creek into the Big Basin, an old landslide from the previous winter had been widened by the shock and its direction had changed. We assigned MMI 7.
36. W.A. Chalfant reports an "unusual" but "untimed" length of shaking in Bishop. Doors and windows were rattled. We assigned MMI 3-4.
37. Black Diamond and Cornwall were incorporated into Pittsburg.
38. Blacks Station was renamed Zamora.
39. At Bloomfield, brick buildings were wrecked and every chimney but one thrown down. Several frame buildings were shifted on their foundations. 80% of the larger stones in the cemetery fell. We assigned MMI 9.
40. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that the earthquake damaged 15 chimneys and cracked the plaster in many houses in Blue Lake. We assigned MMI 6-7.
41. In Bodega, all chimneys were thrown down and several houses were shifted on their foundations. A mile from town, a brick bark-drier was thrown into a heap, despite the brickwork being bound together with iron rods. We assigned MMI 8. The Bodega cemetery, situated on a hillside 0.3 miles south of town, was severely damaged. We assigned MMI 9.
42. The shock was perceptible in Bodie and some clocks stopped. We assigned MMI 2.
43. In Bolinas, much of the land was broken into blocks that have been faulted and tilted. “The upper part of the village of Bolinas lies in a curving fault-sag among these dislocated blocks … in the fault-sag, where the ground was much cracked, nearly all the houses were either shifted or thrown from their foundations.” We assigned MMI 9.
44. H.W. Fairbanks reports that Boonville suffered no damage other than the collapse of “about half the chimneys.” L. Romer remembers “the bricks on the fireplace shaking loose and hitting the roof.” The Evergreen Cemetery, 1.5 miles north of town, was slightly damaged. We assigned MMI 7.
45. B. Bryan reports “in the town of Boulder Creek, all chimneys were down except those on some 1-story cottages; these were cracked, however… and plaster was cracked everywhere.” L.E. Titus, a young schoolteacher at the time of the earthquake, remembers that many of the town’s buildings “were twisted and unsettled from their slight foundations.” We assigned MMI 8.
46. The descriptions of effects at Boyes Hot Spring, Ceres, Esparto, Jamesan, the Pinnacles, and Thorn Junction are inadequate for assigning intensities.
47. J.M. Branscomb reported that 2 of 15 chimneys were “shaken down” in the vicinity of Branscomb. The Willits News reports that the earthquake caused a “dry shower of limbs and tree tops and the earth is cracked in several places.” We assigned MMI 6-7. B. Barnwell reports that the shaking 6 miles west on Branscomb Road threw down horses and cattle standing on a hillside. We assigned MMI 8.
48. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that “Briceland was more badly shaken up than Garberville. J.G. Bowden’s store and Ben Harris’ hotel were both moved from their foundations, … J.P. Cannon’s house was wrecked badly and every breakable thing in the rooms were destroyed; even the large range stove was broken to pieces.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
49. Most of the farms in Bridgeport were damaged by the earthquake: a large landslide extended 150 feet into the cultivated fields, and “a fissure at its foot was traceable for over three miles.” A. Schafer describes how the shock “rolled her bed across the room” and separated the house where the stairs were. We assigned MMI 8-9.
50. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that “the earthquake at Bridgeville did no serious damage …[but] the family of George W. Cooper … were obliged to cook their morning meal by a campfire outside the house, as their dwelling was minus chimney.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
51. Brook Mine is called "Brooks" by C.H. Johnson. Brook and Gilta were active mines in the Trinity Alps: however, the felt reports from these sites are secondhand. P.L. Young describes the shaking at Brook as "heavy," which would make it the only mine with MMI 6. We excluded this intensity.
52. "In Brown's, Los Muertos, and Quien Sabe Valleys, the shock was only sufficient to throw cream from pans of milk." We assigned MMI 5 to each of these sites.
53. In Burlingame, many poles along the line of the electric railway from San Mateo northward were altered from their previously vertical positions. Many of the houses in the Burlingame vicinity “were badly wrecked, due to the falling of extra heavy chimneys through the roofs,” and most brick walls fell unless they were well built. We assigned MMI 8.
54. The Contra Costa Gazette reports “The chimney inspection is closed in the Byron district: 119 dwellings were visited by the inspector, aggregating 175 fire flues with only 4 condemned.” In Byron Hot Springs, “One chimney and some plaster were cracked and a picture was thrown from the wall.” We assigned MMI 6.
55. Calaveras Valley was inundated by the Calaveras Reservoir: "all the brick chimneys were thrown down, tho there were only a few ...No damage to houses is reported." We assigned MMI 7.
56. C.E. Weaver reports that in Calistoga, “a large number of chimneys and 2 brick buildings were thrown down… A few local slides on the south side of Mount St Helena were confined to the alluvium.” D. Patten reports “a large rock was thrown down from cliffs up on the mountain … at an elevation of 4,000 feet on the northeast side.” We assigned MMI 8.
57. G.A. Waring reports “The intensity of the shock diminished uniformly from Meridian toward Campbell. At Campbell, 68 per cent (51 out of 89) of the chimneys fell, but the plastering in the houses was not badly injured.” We assigned MMI 7.
58. Candelaria was an active mining area in western Nevada.
59. The Cantara Post Office was located on the north side of the Cantara Railroad Bridge over the Upper Sacramento River, the site of a derailment and chemical spill in 1991.
60. Cantua Creek was crossed by an extensive landslide. The association with the 1906 earthquake rests on the observation of S.C. Lillis, who did not see the landslide occur, and G.D. Louderback's characterization of the landslide face as “fresh”. We assigned MMI 6-7.
61. The brick foundations and water cisterns at the Cape Mendocino Light Station were broken. We assigned MMI 8-9. The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake occurred at Cape Fortunas, 6 miles NNE. F.E. Matthes described it as an earth-slump and concluded “It probably had long been imminent before the earthquake started it.” We assigned MMI 8. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that “Capetown escaped with scarcely more serious results than a lively shaking up.” We assumed this report disregards chimney damage and assigned MMI 7-8.
62. “Nearly all the chimneys at Capitola fell, and considerable plaster was shaken from the north walls of the first floor of the hotel…Much earth fell from bluffs near the town, but there was no appreciable effect on the surf.” The railroad trestle, a new steel structure, was also reported to be unsafe. We assigned MMI 7-8.
63. In Caspar, the majority of the wooden houses suffered no damage, and the lumber company’s brick store sustained a few minor cracks. The bridge over the Caspar River and the trestle over Jughandle Creek, however, were both demolished and “all chimneys were broken without exception.” We assigned MMI 8.
64. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports that four homes in the Casserly School District were severely damaged. We assigned MMI 8-9. On nearby Green Valley Road, “a bunk house was shaken from its foundation.” We assigned MMI 8.
65. The earthquake did not seriously affect Castroville: only three out of approximately thirty chimneys fell. We assigned MMI 6-7. At Neponset, 3 miles southwest, both the wagon bridge and the railroad bridge across the Salinas River were damaged. We assigned MMI 7-8.
66. “At Cazadero the shock was severe and chimneys were generally thrown, but no buildings were wrecked, all the structures being of wood… Some pictures hanging against walls were turned around so as to face the walls.” We assigned MMI 8.
67. Centerville and Decoto were both incorporated into Fremont. All the brick houses in Centerville were severely damaged and many of the walls were thrown down. Some of the walls the bank building fell and the roof caved in. The brick and tile chimneys were thrown with few exceptions, and the window panes of many stores broke as well. We assigned MMI 8. Only chimneys were damaged in Decoto. We assigned MMI 7.
68. In Central San Joaquin County, "no objects or chimneys were overthrown. Windows and window weights rattled. Paper on the walls was cracked. The roof on a high church tower was cracked ... large trees swayed and bent as if rocked by a terrible gale." The township and range for this site locates it just northeast of Stockton. We assigned MMI 5-6.
69. The railroad yard at Chittenden was severely damaged. “The cottage of the foreman was moved 5 inches westward; an upright piano was thrown northwestward upon its back, and electric drop lights swung so as to break against the ceiling.” The porch of the railroad office was ripped off and a 1,000 pound safe was knocked over. Many freight cars were thrown off the tracks, and between Chittenden and the Pajaro Bridge “the track was bent in an S-shaped curve in several places.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
70. Cienega and Paicines occupy separate valleys in "La Cienega de los Paicines." G.A. Waring reports the shaking to be stronger at Paicines (MMI 6) than at Cienega (MMI 5). Four miles SW of Paicines, a man saw "a wave coming westward thru a grainfield, and some oaks waving considerably."
71. All of the brick chimneys in Cleone fell. Additionally, “all sway-braces on the wharf had to be replaced, and the railroad track was buckled in many places. The bridge across the lagoon sank 3 feet in some places, and was thrown out of line laterally.” We assigned MMI 8.
72. R.S. Holway reports that in Cloverdale, the upper walls of a brick building had cracked so as to require rebuilding, but that a different two-story brick building only exhibited cracked plastering. The inspector condemned four-fifths of the town’s chimneys, but many agree that not more than one-fourth fell. One man recounted seeing distinct waves in the ground. We assigned MMI 7.
73. In Coalinga, the walls of a few brick buildings were slightly damaged, and the brick lining of the furnace at an oil pumping station cracked. Although the oil wells and pipelines were not damaged, considerable oil was thrown from the tanks. We assigned MMI 6.
74. The largest building in Collinsville, a hotel built on pilings, was completely destroyed, and the chimneys and water-tanks were overthrown. We assigned MMI 8.
75. Over 75% of the monuments in the Holy Cross Cemetery at Colma were thrown down or "twisted on their base." Both the Holy Cross train station and the Cypress Lawn building were damaged. The other cemeteries in Colma were less severely damaged. We assigned MMI 8.
76. The only brick building in Concord was badly cracked. Most of the chimneys had also cracked, and fifty per cent of the chimneys had fallen, including a large chimney at a bakery. We assigned MMI 7.
77. Congress Springs was incorporated into Saratoga. A stone barn was thrown down, and people in houses were knocked down trying to get out of doors. Chimneys and poorly built foundations fell. We assigned MMI 8-9.
78. Cooley's Landing was near the western end of the Dunbarton Bridge. "No damage but broken chimneys was noticeable ...One house on a poor foundation was knocked down." We assigned MMI 7-8.
79. Copeland Creek runs through present Rohnert Park. R.S. Holway reports "chimneys were much more damaged than on the road ... northward to Santa Rosa. " We assigned MMI 7.
80. The Santa Cruz Sentinel reports that in Corralitos, both the Christian and Methodist churches were considerably damaged, along with two houses and a winery. An elderly woman died of “a stroke of apoplexy brought on by the fright caused by the earthquake.” We assigned MMI 8. Above Corralitos, an extensive landslide in Eureka Canyon dammed Corralitos Creek and blocked the county road. We assigned MMI 8-9.
81. At Corte Madera "huge masses of rock had been thrown down" onto Alpine Road. We assigned MMI 8-9.
82. C.L. Jeffrey describes the motion at Cotati as "objects were thrown southeast; hanging objects swung northeast and southwest" but does not mention damage to chimneys or buildings. Drury Butler describes a transit from Santa Rosa to the Copeland district school, then Cotati, and the Durham district school, where "in the valley the chimneys were as a rule thrown down." We assigned MMI 7.
83. In Covelo, the earthquake jarred objects from shelves and broke an unsecured window, but did not damage any chimneys. B.L. Reed describes the shaking in Covelo as heavy. We assigned MMI 6.
84. At Crow’s Landing, three out of eighteen chimneys fell and “considerable water was thrown from the tanks.” The walls of a brick pumping station four miles north of Crow’s Landing were cracked. We assigned MMI 6-7.
85. Cuesta is called "Guesta" by G.A. Waring: it was located along the railroad north of Cuesta Pass and San Luis Obispo.
86. Davis Mill became Jenner. The earthquake threw down chimneys and damaged trestles on logging railroads. We assigned MMI 8.
87. Davisville was shortened to Davis. "Some plaster was cracked and doors were jammed so they required resetting." We assigned MMI 5-6.
88. J. Snider was part of a road crew repairing the Laytonville Road, 1.5 miles south of Dos Rios. He describes the shaking as strong, straining a barn where the crew was sleeping and knocking down a large tree limb. We assigned MMI 7.
89. Dove was located along the railroad just southeast of Atascadero.
90. Drews Valley was inundated by Drews Reservoir.
91. The damage in Dublin consisted of a few broken chimneys and shifted water tanks, one of which fell from its supports. We assigned MMI 6-7.
92. Dudley Station was located near the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon on present CA 41. "Nothing on the shelves was disturbed, nor had milk or water slopt over." We assigned MMI 3-4.
93. At Duncan’s Mills, a large hotel was completely ruined and several houses were thrown from their foundations. J. Parmeter reports that the earthquake forced up large trees that had been buried in the bed of the river, while previously visible trees disappeared from sight, and “between the river and the ruined hotel at Duncan’s is an irregular crack about 20 feet wide, 80 feet long, and 1.5 to 4 feet deep…” We assigned MMI 8-9.
94. Dungan’s Ferry was on the north shore of the Eel River west of Fernbridge, where an extensive lateral spread wrecked a field. Similar lateral spreads occurred at Port Kenyon, Cock Robin Island, and Cannibal Island. We assigned MMI 7-8.
95. The shock at Edenvale was fairly strong, as shown by the damage done to a brick canning factory. “All the walls were badly cracked and the tops of the walls fell. The top of the fire-wall above the roof was shaken down.” We assigned MMI 8.
96. At El Jarro Point, “the shock was so light that a small chimney with a terra-cotta top, making a height of seven feet above the roof, did not fall…Glasses and bottles remained on the shelves in a bar-room.” We assigned MMI 5-6.
97. Milk was thrown from pans a few miles north but not at Elkhorn Roadhouse. We used Elkhorn Ranch to locate this site and assigned MMI 4-5.
98. Elmhurst and Fitchburg were incorporated into Oakland. Most of the chimneys fell at both sites, but no structural damage was reported. We assigned MMI 7.
99. The 1896 Post Office Map locates Emmett Station 9 miles southeast of Paicines. "Milk was thrown out in small quantities, but no movable objects were upset or moved." We assigned MMI 5.
100. Esmeralda is called "Esmerelda." It was an active gold mine in Calaveras County.
101. In Eureka, “many chimneys toppled over and several hundred panes of glass were broken… The statue of Minerva on the dome of the court house tipt toward the south until it leaned at an angle of 43°.” While one frame building moved twelve inches, no cracks were caused in any of the brick buildings. The railroad bed sank at various points between Samoa and Arcata. We assigned MMI 7.
102. The felt report for Eureka NV is problematic. In his introduction to the section “East of the Sierra Nevada,” G.D. Louderback asserts that Winnemucca was the furthest point east at which the earthquake was perceived. This would appear to preclude locating the Clay Simms report at Eureka, NV, as it is 93 miles east of Winnemucca. Lawson, however, includes the report, drawing the boundary of the Rossi-Forel Intensity II area in Map 23 through Eureka. We conclude that Simms’ letter was appropriately postmarked, but follow Stover and Coffman (1993) and disregard his report: first, because the earthquake was not felt in Tonopah, Gold Field, or Fairview, and second, because the reported duration (“it seemed to last about a second”) is entirely unlikely at this distance.
103. “At Evergreen…all the chimneys, all the road tanks, and nearly all of the wind-mills in the neighborhood fell. None of the houses were demolished, but some were shifted on their foundations.” We assigned MMI 8.
104. G.K. Gilbert reports that the towns from Sausalito to Fairfax “showed no damage more serious than the loss of a portion of the chimneys…In San Anselmo most of the brick chimneys were broken, but other injuries in that town and in Fairfax appear to have been slight.” We assigned MMI 7 to Ross, Fairfax, and San Anselmo.
105. Fairoaks (San Mateo) was renamed Atherton. It suffered broken chimneys and a collapsed (frame) bungalow. We assigned MMI 8.
106. Fairoaks (Sacramento) was incorporated into Citrus Heights.
107. Fairview is not indicated on Map 23. The Fairview mining district in Churchill County, near the 1954 Fairview Peak earthquake, gives the best geographic fit to G.D. Louderback's enumeration, out of four candidate mining districts in Nevada (see map of Nevada sites). Fairview did not feel the earthquake.
108. Two rockslides occurred on the western end of southeast Farallon Island. The Weather Bureau building was slightly damaged. We assigned MMI 7.
109. Ferndale was strongly damaged by the earthquake, but most of the damage was done to chimneys, storefronts, and two brick buildings. One frame house was shifted on its foundation. There was substantial liquefaction and lateral spreading throughout the Eel River Valley. We assigned MMI 8.
110. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that the Vance Dairy Farm in Fieldbrook was strongly shaken, but not damaged. We assigned MMI 6.
111. Fields Landing had an extensive lateral spread. We assigned MMI 7-8.
112. J.F. McNamee describes the shaking in Fishrock as strong, but his house was not damaged. The Fishrock cemetery was moderately damaged. We assigned MMI 8.
113. Forestville lost most of its chimneys. Clara Van Keppel remembers barrels of wine breaking in a winery, and the wine spilling out into the streets. A. Ross reports a ground crack in his orchard that took several years to close. The cemetery suffered moderate damage. We assigned MMI 7-8.
114. Fort Bragg was severely damaged. F.E. Matthes reports “Several brick buildings were completely demolished; others had parts of the walls broken off. Even a number of wooden buildings collapsed or were partly wrecked. Fire broke out and devastated 1½ blocks before it could be controlled.” We assigned MMI 9.
115. In Fort Ross, “chimney tops were thrown off, some chimneys being shattered to the bottom. Many redwood and pine trees were broken off, some at the ground, being uprooted; but generally broken about halfway up.” Most buildings withstood the shock with minimal damage, except “the old Russian Church and several other buildings suffered through collapse of their underpinning…and a few frame buildings set upon unbraced posts were shaken down.” We assigned MMI 9.
116. In Fortuna, store windows were broken, merchandise tossed off shelves, furniture dislodged, and over half of the town’s chimneys thrown down. “Several houses moved 1 to 3 inches off their foundations [and] the river water swashed up on the banks.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
117. The earthquake’s effects in Fresno included “a general awakening of sleepers, oscillation of chandeliers, stopping of clocks, and considerable agitation of trees…water in troughs was spilt out.” The swaying of buildings was also reported, but this motion only disturbed items without displacing them and damaged walls slightly. We assigned MMI 5-6.
118. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that in Garberville, “only a few houses moved from their foundations a few inches, … Chimneys were shaken off the houses, and every fireplace was completely demolished.” We assigned MMI 8.
119. F.E. Matthes reports that the buildings at the Garcia Hot Springs 6 miles east of the fault “suffered but slight damage.” We assumed these buildings were cabins and assigned MMI 7-8.
120. In Geyserville, “several brick buildings were badly cracked and tops of fire walls thrown down…half or more of the chimneys were reported down.” Neither the cemetery nor the nearby bridge across the Russian River was damaged. We assigned MMI 7-8.
121. In Gilroy, "nearly every chimney fell, fire-walls of brick buildings were thrown down." Monuments in both the Masons and Odd Fellows cemetery and the Catholic cemetery fell. We assigned MMI 8.
122. The majority of chimneys in Glen Ellen were thrown down, and “one wall of a brick building whose braces had been removed to make room for a stairway was much cracked.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
123. R.M. Hathaway reports from Graton, “a place 3 miles northwest of Sebastopol,” that many frame buildings were thrown from their foundations. The nearby Gilliam and Grass Valley cemeteries show substantial damage. We assigned MMI 8-9.
124. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports that a Southern Pacific warehouse at Graves was “shaken to the ground.” We assumed that the building was unreinforced and assigned MMI 7-8.
125. Grayson suffered little damage as a result of the earthquake, the only noticeable effects being a few items tossed off of shelves. No chimneys were thrown down. We assigned MMI 6.
126. Greenwood was renamed Elk. F.E. Matthes reports “weak underpinning caused the partial collapse of several frame houses. Chimneys had fallen without exception. Plaster fell in the lower stories of the few houses containing plaster. The lumber mill was not damaged.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
127. F.E. Matthes reports that “the wagon bridge over the Gualala River was seriouosly damaged… all chimneys broke off; plaster was cracked in the hotel and several other buildings; a few small dwellings were thrown off their underpinnings.” We assigned MMI 8-9. In Gualala Valley, along the fault trace, “the destruction was notably severe…” We assigned MMI 9.
128. R.S. Holway reports that all brick buildings were badly wrecked in Guerneville, and that “chimneys generally fell.” The Commercial Hotel, a frame building, was twisted slightly, and at the cemetery, one monument fell and three or four others were shifted. We assigned MMI 8.
129. Guth Landing was located near the present Shoreline Amphitheatre. Chimneys were thrown down, and a brick warehouse was damaged. We assigned MMI 7.
130. Hacienda was the residential community for the New Almaden Quicksilver Mines, and was later called New Almaden.
131. “In the town of Half Moon Bay many buildings were badly damaged, some old frame houses and the brick bank building being flat, while the upper half of a two-story brick structure was demolished.” There was no evidence of any change in level along the coast. We assigned MMI 8.
132. We have located the Hames Post Office at the Hames Valley Hall.
133. Hamlet was a small town on the eastern shore of Tomales Bay with a pier for milk trains. No buildings were damaged nor was the pier shifted, but a large landslide disrupted a nearby section of the wagon road from Point Reyes Station to Tomales. We assigned MMI 8.
134. A. Kingsbury reports that the damage in Hardy included thrown chimneys, movement of large furniture, and damage to the logging railway. “The earth was cracked, both upon the mountains and near the creek, where the earth was broken away from the banks… the walls around the boilers in the lumber mill were cracked.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
135. At Healdsburg, most of the chimneys fell. Five brick buildings were destroyed, "but many brick buildings stood the shock without serious damage." Less than half the cemetery monuments fell. There were fissures in the creek bed, and water was forced up. We assigned MMI 8.
136. Hemlock Post Office was located between Ukiah and Upper Clear Lake.
137. Hollister suffered the collapse of three brick buildings and severe damage to the two-story Catholic school and several other structures. “Sixty-five out of 123 chimneys fell, or 53 per cent.” It was reported that “a small peak near Santa Ana showed a landslide down its steep face, plainly visible at a distance of six miles.” We assigned MMI 8.
138. Homestead was just west of present Hillsdale: it is located on Map 21. The brick building of the Crocker Orphanage was completely ruined. We assigned MMI 8.
139. H. Willard reports that “one big brick building” in Hopland was damaged and many objects were thrown from shelves. The cemetery was slightly damaged. We assigned MMI 7.
140. Horse Ranch and Middle Fork Overlook are sites 20 miles NW and 10 miles SW of Round Valley where E.S. Larsen describes significant ground cracking. We assigned these sites MMI 6-7, half an intensity greater than the MMI 6 assigned to Covelo and Poonkinney.
141. Hower's was a station on Redwood Creek below Bald Hills.
142. The Fortuna Beacon reports that in Hydesville, “No great amount of damage was done except the toppling over of chimneys. The stores suffered the breakage of glass ware and crockery… The boiler in William’s mill was cracked… Two crevices in the earth, each about six inches wide, opened a short distance from J. Rouse’s house.” We assigned MMI 7.
143. Idlewild was a station on the coast road at Little Sur River. "Several articles were thrown from shelves" and "redwoods swayed considerably." We assigned MMI 5-6.
144. At "Idria, a few bottles and light articles were thrown from shelves ...and a few bricks loosened ...but chimneys were not injured." We assigned MMI 5-6.
145. E. Pitts reports that no chimneys were left standing in Inglenook, and many dishes were broken. Much of the nearby timber fell. We assigned MMI 8-9.
146. At Inverness, half the houses "were shifted on their foundations. A number of persons were thrown violently from their beds." G.K. Gilbert identified a consistent fault-normal direction of “throw” from the fall of four water tanks. We assigned MMI 9.
147. In Irvington, “every brick house was more or less extensively damaged; portions of walls fell in some instances, and cracks in brickwork were common to all…Only a few chimneys were left standing in the village. Plaster cracked and fell in large flakes in several houses.” We assigned MMI 8.
148. Isabella was inundated by Lake Isabella.
149. Jagel Landing was located east of Moffet Air Field. There was little damage: one of two chimneys was twisted. We assigned MMI 6-7.
150. John Adams was a Post Office between Chico and Paradise: the 1896 Post Office map locates it 12 miles NE of Chico, near the present hamlet of Centerville.
151. Junction City is described as "near the County Hospital," between San Leandro and San Lorenzo. We have located this site at an intersection 0.6 km southwest of the Alameda County Hospital. G Backus and R.P.O. Newcomb report that “the shock was about the same as at San Leandro.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
152. R.S. Holway reports that “Some chimneys fell as far as Kellogg at the foot of the mountain.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
153. The Kettle Post Office was in Sierra Valley, 6 miles southeast of Beckwourth.
154. At King City, some heavy objects were shifted, and a few things were thrown from shelves. One chimney fell, and the river bed subsided nearly six feet. We assigned MMI 6-7.
155. At Knight's Landing, "small ornaments were thrown in all directions." 3-4 ft waves were seen on the Sacramento River. We assigned MMI 5-6.
156. In the district about Knoxville, C.E. Weaver reports that “a few chimneys at ranch houses fell, but that no sever damage was occasioned.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
157. Plaster fell from the first floor walls in the hotel in La Honda, and “lamps were all shaken off the tables, and all the chimneys were down.” Water also spilled from horse troughs, and a family’s well-built ranch house with a strong frame structure was badly damaged. We assigned MMI 8-9.
158. In the valley of Laguna Salada, the Ocean Shore Railroad’s temporary trestle “was twisted and thrown out of line, and the earth sank along the newly filled roadbed.” There were several landslides along the base of the cliffs south of Laguna Salada, in addition to small cracks along the tops of the cliff. We assigned MMI 8-9.
159. An old railroad trestle that crosses the northern end of Lake Merced was broken in two places and the pieces were separated by as much as 14 feet. “Just south of the bridge across Lake Merced, a sand bar was forced up out of the lake, from water that was previously 6 or 8 feet deep.” We assigned MMI 9.
160. At Lakeport "several brick buildings and one frame building were partly destroyed and most of the chimneys were thrown down." We assigned MMI 8.
161. Laurel Dell and Blue Lake were resorts near Lower Blue Lake in Lake County. There was a small landslide at Laurel Dell. We assigned MMI 7.
162. “Ten or more persons noticed the shock [in Laws], which was slight.” We assigned MMI 2-3.
163. E. Downing recalls how washtubs hung on a house in Laytonville swung back and forth until they were thrown off. The Willits News reported minor damages except for the destruction of a few chimneys. The cemetery on Branscomb Road appears slightly damaged, but may have been vandalized. We assigned MMI 6-7.
164. F.E. Matthes reports that at Little River, “The intensity of the shock seems to have been less than at Albion or Greenwood,” where some houses partially collapsed and all chimneys fell. We assigned MMI 8.
165. In Livermore, “Many chimneys were cracked and about 50 per cent [were] thrown down… a block of old, weak-looking buildings northeast of the depot suffered no more than a few cracks.” Concrete bridges throughout town were not damaged, but “tombstones fell in various directions.” We assigned MMI 7.
166. The Fortuna Beacon reports that the damage in Loleta included the destruction of nearly every brick chimney in town. “Windows were [also] broken … the Loleta hotel moved several inches … [and] several windmills and tanks were badly damaged.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
167. In Lone Pine, “A number of clocks were stopt … the shock was noticed by only a few persons … [and] trees shook.” We assigned MMI 2-3.
168. At Lonoak, "chimneys were thrown down and a mild earthquake was felt." We assigned MMI 6.
169. At Los Banos, "all the brick chimneys were damaged ...17 out of 30 fell." Brick buildings were damaged, but not frame buildings. We assigned MMI 7.
170. I.H. Snyder reports that in Los Gatos, “Nearly all business houses were damaged, and about one-third of the plate glass fronts were broken. Much plaster fell in Los Gatos and in the surrounding country… About 80 per cent of all the chimneys were destroyed or damaged.” There were also many cracks and ground fissures, which varied from up to 100 feet in length and up to 20 inches in width. We assigned MMI 8.
171. Los Muertos Valley is called "Los Muretos" by G.A. Waring (from Aron Meltzner).
172. G.K. Gilbert reports that near the Maacama School, “horses were thrown down … [and] all brick chimneys in the neighborhood were broken.” A large landslide, “0.125 mile wide at the top and about 0.5 mile long … cut its way thru a fir forest and dammed Maacama Creek with rocks and trees.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
173. No damage resulted from the earthquake in Maine Prairie, but waves were “generated on the surface of the water on the overflowed land.” We assigned MMI 4-5.
174. “Manchester … was severely shaken, yet none of the frame houses in the village itself was badly damaged. A number of them slipt on their foundations.” E. Biaggi reports that some of the ground fissures were so large that one could ride a horse down in them. We assigned MMI 8-9.
175. T.J.J. See reports that “No chimney on Mare Island was thrown down, and only one or two were broken loose at the roof so that they had to be taken down.” The damage to buildings was not serious, “Except in the case of two or three new buildings recently erected on the “made” land near the water-front.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
176. At Mark West Springs, “the concrete walls of several springs were cracked and damaged. Chimneys fell on the house.” We assigned MMI 8.
177. R.S. Holway reports that at Marshall, “a hotel and a stable ...went easily and gently into the bay. The occupants of the hotel did not realize that the hotel had fallen, but at first thought that the water had risen.” This description suggests a lateral spread carried the hotel into Tomales Bay. The intensity for a lateral spread is MMI 7-8, but this assignment would underestimate the intensity for nearby rock sites, so we did not assign an intensity.
178. F.E. Matthes reports “Most of the brick buildings [in Martinez] suffered severely; nearly all are more or less cracked, and the stone facing of several was partly demolished. The roof of the bank and other buildings were wrecked… Many window panes were broken [and] most of the chimneys were broken off.” Eight monuments in the cemetery fell, and three others were disturbed. We assigned MMI 7-8.
179. In Mayfield, “Out of a total of 258 chimneys 183 fell - about 70 per cent. A few brick buildings were badly cracked, and the fire-walls were thrown off. The plaster in the small buildings was somewhat cracked, while in the larger buildings the damage done to plaster was more marked.” The Palo Alto Tribune reports that most water tanks were overturned. We assigned MMI 7-8.
180. In Melita, “Chimneys are all down and the plaster is somewhat broken.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
181. F. E. Matthes reports that only one large frame building in Mendocino, the Occidental Hotel, was wrecked. “Few chimneys escaped destruction. Plaster fell in quantities in some dwellings, while others suffered but little in this respect… The bridge over Big River was also severely damaged, a short span in the long approach on the north side collapsing entirely.” A large brick building at the mill near Big River was ruined. We assigned MMI 8.
182. H.P. Gage reports that “At the Catholic Seminary near Menlo Park, a 4-story brick building, the upper part of many of the walls fell; towers and chimneys also came down… The chapel behind the northeast side wall was thrown in a heap.” Also, “The round power-house chimney (35 feet high) was cracked in the middle and the top broken off … [and] the Arcade of the Sacred Heart Convent was thrown down.” We assigned MMI 8.
183. G.A. Waring reports “Near Meridian, three miles west of San Jose, several cottages were shifted from their foundations. All water-tanks on open frames fell, but those that were boarded in stood.” Meridian became part of Santa Clara. We assigned MMI 8-9.
184. “At Mill Valley the visible injury was chiefly to chimneys. Extended enquiries were not made; but no reports were heard of destruction to furniture. The houses were not shifted.” We assigned MMI 7.
185. R. Crandall reports “At Millbrae there are but few buildings that could be affected by the shock, but the brick power-house of the San Mateo electric line was partly wrecked. The north and south walls fell, while the east and west ones remained standing.” We assigned MMI 8.
186. G. Backus and R.P.O. Newcomb report that approximately half of the chimneys were down at Mills College. “A stone building there was badly shattered and will have to be taken down. A brick and concrete library, and the same kind of a bell-tower, were not injured to any great extent, though a few cracks can be seen here and there.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
187. At Milpitas, "nearly all the chimneys were thrown down... the destruc¬tion seems insignificant. The hotel slipt on its foundations, but was almost repaired." Many water tanks were thrown down. We assigned MMI 7-8.
188. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that the earthquake damage in Miranda was considerable. “Dishes were broken, pictures and mirrors and lamps crashed to the floor and furniture tumbled all around… The ground was cracked in places as much as two feet across and for several hundred yards in length.” In Phillipsville, 2.5 miles southeast of Miranda, a house burned down when an oil lamp was thrown to the floor. We assigned MMI 7-8.
189. S. Ehrman reports that at Mission San Jose, “Nearly all chimneys were thrown down, and plaster in houses cracked… Some objects were rotated clockwise, and hanging objects were caused to swing.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
190. Modesto "suffered practically no damage." Milk was spilt, objects fell from shelves, buildings were rocked with some slight cracking to brick walls and plaster. Trees swayed strongly. We assigned MMI 5-6.
191. "The west side of Mono Lake" is approximated by the present Lee Vining.
192. Monroe was renamed Hales Grove (located by Aron Meltzner). E.S. Larsen reports that 300' tall redwoods were topped nearby. We assigned MMI 8-9.
193. “The old, low brick structure at Montara Point did not show any effects of the shock, but there was some damage to a wooden tank-house… On the southwest face of Montara Mountain, …, no landslides of any size were observed [but] south of Montara Point, in the low foot-hills north of Half Moon Bay, there were two large low-angle landslides.” We assigned MMI 7.
194. In Monterey, A.S. Eakle reports that there was “No damage done to the houses, the only damage reported being of some glassware in a few stores. In some houses furniture was moved slightly.” We assigned MMI 6.
195. G.A. Waring reports that “At Morgan Hill about 64 per cent (18 out of 28) of the chimneys fell, and a one-story concrete-block building was badly damaged, the whole front having fallen out.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
196. Morro became Morro Bay. "Some people in bed and awake felt it, many others did not." We assigned MMI 2.
197. Lateral spreads severely damaged the wharfs and buildings at Moss Landing. We assigned MMI 7-8.
198. In Mount Eden, W. Gall reports that “Brick chimneys were broken and thrown. Furniture was thrown flat … Monuments in the cemetery were overthrown in various directions.” We assigned MMI 8.
199. On Mt. Hamilton, “The shock was severe enough to make windows rattle and doors swing. Book-cases were moved out about an inch from east and west walls… Not much plaster fell, and only one of a dozen or more chimneys was thrown. Some other chimneys, principally those of a three-story brick house, were cracked and shifted.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
200. Mountain House is described as near or just east of Pacheco Pass. This station may have taken its name from the Mountain House Hotel on the east flank of Mt Diablo, which closed in 1895. We have located it at Pacheco Pass. The earthquake did not spill milk from pans at this site. We assigned MMI 4-5.
201. R.L. Motz reports “In the new town of Mountain View … six brick structures, including the Pacific Press and the cannery buildings, were seriously injured. Out of 271 chimneys, 206, or 76 per cent fell; out of 46 large water-tanks 20, or 43 per cent, fell. In the Mountain View Cemetery there were 26 large monuments; of these 11 fell and 7 were shifted, while 13 slab headstones out of 27 were thrown down.” We assigned MMI 8.
202. G. Young, who was working at a mill in Muir Canyon, 6 miles up Baechtel Creek from Willits, remembers that the earthquake “did no damage out at the mill because the mill was well adjusted for the vibration of the machinery.” We assigned MMI 7.
203. The 1896 Post Office map locates Mulberry 7 miles SSE of Paicines: "liquids were strongly affected ...and a few articles were thrown from shelves." We assigned MMI 5-6.
204. C.E. Weaver reports that “At Napa many brick buildings were cracked, and walls thrown down. Chimneys were generally overthrown,” and E.C. Jones states “The gas station was badly shaken up; about 10 feet of the end wall of the brick building was thrown down, falling on top of the boiler and breaking off the steam pipes.” We assigned MMI 8.
205. Navarro was an abandoned mill town situated near the mouth of the Navarro River. F.E. Matthes reports that “Nearly every house, except for the few still occupied, suffered partial collapse of its underpinnings, so that from whatever point the town be viewed, it presents the same remarkable jumble of leaning, half-ruined houses.” We assigned MMI 8-9. This site was mislocated by Stover and Coffman (1993) at the modern town of Navarro, approximately 10 miles east.
206. Nays was a station located on the Calistoga Grade, on the southern flank of Mount St Helena. "A severe shock was reported but nothing was taken down." We assigned MMI 6.
207. F.E. Matthes reports that in Newark, “Nearly all brick and tile chimneys in the village were broken off; the direction of throw varied. Plaster cracked and fell in quantities on the lower floors of hotels and several other buildings.” According to the Oakland Tribune, “Four houses were twisted off their foundations. The Lincoln school building was turned about at an angle on its base.” We assigned MMI 8.
208. G.F. Zoffman reports at Newman “out of eight brick buildings only one, just constructed, was thrown down; one was cracked, while the remaining six were undamaged beyond the falling of a little plaster. Sixty per cent (36 out of 60) of all the brick chimneys fell, although little other damage was done to frame houses.” Additionally, a 53,000-gallon railroad water-tank fell. We assigned MMI 7-8.
209. In Niles, R. Crandall reports how there was no serious damage done to structures, even though they were not strong. “Of all the chimneys in town, 48 per cent fell; of the brick chimneys 80 per cent fell; of the terra-cotta chimneys only 10 per cent went down… A concrete abutment of the bridge across Alameda Creek was cracked… A 50,000-gallon water-tank fell at the Niles railway station.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
210. North Branch Post Office was located between San Andreas and Valley Springs.
211. In Novato, items were thrown from shelves in the grocery store and two clocks stopped, but “Chimneys as a rule were not damaged.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
212. G.F. Zoffman reports that at Ingleson Ranch on Oak Ridge, 6 miles east of the Calaveras Valley, “The shock was not severe. A long slender bottle standing on a table … fell over, but a lamp on the table was not upset. Water in a horse-trough spilt out, and the trees waved as if there had been a wind.” We assigned MMI 6.
213. In Oakland, A.C. Lawson reports that “Chimneys fell very generally thruout the city; the upper parts of brick walls, gables, and cornices were in many cases thronw down … The underpinning of a few old frame houses caused these structures to collapse.” A number of larger buildings and churches were severely damaged. In St Mary’s Cemetery, “many monuments were moved or twisted and several were overthrown.” We assigned MMI 8. The damage to the Oakland waterfront was reported by the Oakland Tribune as particularly severe. We assigned MMI 8-9.
214. At Occidental, all chimneys were knocked down, the only brick building in town was demolished, and a hardware store was shifted on its foundation, but reset later by a work crew. The large Victorian homes were undamaged, other than the loss of their chimneys. We assigned MMI 8.
215. G.K. Gilbert reports that in Olema, one residence was shifted south two feet, falling from its supports. The hotel was wrecked but was not shifted, a church moved three feet southwest, and “Probably half the houses in the town were not shifted from their foundations. Of two bridges over Olema Creek, one was shaken to pieces.” The Sausalito News reports “The new hotel of the Nelson Hotel Company at Olema caught fire and was totally destroyed.” We assigned MMI 9.
216. At Olive Springs, "a landslide demolished the Loma Prieta Mill and killed 9 men." We assigned MMI 9.
217. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that at Orick there was no damage except a broken pane of glass. We assigned MMI 5-6.
218. "An adobe building was cracked" at the Palmtag Winery in the hills southwest of Tres Pinos. We assigned MMI 6.
219. A.F. Rogers reports that in Palo Alto, “A number of buildings moved toward the southeast one to six inches… In other cases buildings collapsed and fell toward the southeast… Chimneys were mostly knocked down.” We assigned MMI 8.
220. The site of the Papoose Post Office was inundated by Trinity Lake.
221. At Parkfield, "the shock was the longest, easiest one felt in many years." We assigned MMI 4.
222. “At Paso Robles a number of clocks were stopt, most of which were facing east or west. Window weights rattled and lamps swung about, but plastering and shelf goods were not affected. The duration of the shock was estimated at 40 seconds, but was very gentle.” We assigned MMI 4.
223. The 1896 Post Office Map locates Peachtree Post Office 3.5 miles south of Lonoak. "Dishes had been thrown over and milk spilt from pans." We assigned MMI 5-6.
224. Pelican Island, across the bay from Fields Landing, had an extensive lateral spread and settlement, but no habitation. We assigned MMI 7-8.
225. The Blue Lake Advocate reports that in Pepperwood, chimneys were thrown down, dishes were broken, lamps upset, and havoc raised in general.” We assigned MMI 7-8. In Englewood, three miles east, a cookhouse was moved from its foundation. We assigned MMI 8.
226. At Pescadero, "all but 3 brick chimneys fell, but few buildings were otherwise damaged. All the water tanks observed were still standing, and none of the churches had lost their steeples, tho one church was cracked open." We assigned MMI 7-8.
227. Petaluma lost “the great majority” of its chimneys, and a few brick and stone buildings were wrecked. Few frame buildings were damaged, and a large part of the now-historic downtown survived. We assigned MMI 7-8.
228. At Petrolia, "practically every house was thrown off its foundations." Every tombstone in the cemetery was thrown down. There was extensive ground failure along the Mattole River, and a massive landslide at Sea Lion Gulch, eight miles to the south. We assigned MMI 9.
229. There was a small landslide at Pinole. We assigned MMI 7-8.
230. In Plantation House, “Most of the houses stood the shock well. One cottage … suffered the partial collapse of its underpinning… broken chimneys and windows and slight damage to underpinning were the principal destructive effects within the zone.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
231. In Pleasanton, R. Crandall reports that “Such articles as vases, clocks, and dishes fell in most cases and milk and water were spilt from open vessels. Practically no plaster fell, but houses that were plastered had numerous cracks in the walls.” F.E. Matthes adds how “Fifty per cent of all brick and tile chimneys in Pleasanton were thrown down… Nearly every brick building in town was somewhat injured.” We assigned MMI 7.
232. Pleyto was inundated by the San Antonio Reservoir. The shock "hardly more than wakened sleepers." We assigned MMI 3-4.
233. F.E. Matthes reports that in Point Arena “All the brick buildings had completely collapsed … All brick chimneys had fallen; plaster had cracked and fallen wholesale fashion, especially on the lower floors, and many shop windows and smaller panes were broken. A few wooden buildings suffered from the collapse of their underpinning.” We assigned MMI 9.
234. G.K. Gilbert reports “At [the] Point Reyes Post Office, the main residence building was thrown from its foundation of props and shifted two feet westward, being badly wrecked. Other buildings of the same group were not shifted, and two water-tanks on high frames seemed to be uninjured.” We assigned MMI 8.
235. At Point Reyes Station, houses were thrown from their foundations and wrecked. An engine and three railroad cars were overturned. We assigned MMI 8-9.
236. In Pope Valley, “the top of one very old chimney was thrown over, falling to the south. Another was cracked and 4 or 5 bricks from the top of another chimney fell down into the fireplace.” We assigned MMI 6.
237. Port Harford was renamed Port San Luis.
238. S. Taber reports “The bridge at the north end of the village of Portola had the ends thrust together so that the planks forming its floor were thrown out of place. In Portola, brick chimneys were all down and water-pipes were broken. The Portola store was thrown off its foundation. The Catholic Church in the village is a frame building that stood upon an underpinning of posts about three feet high. This building was thrown bodily about two feet toward the north.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
239. "The shock was very appreciable" at Posts. We assigned MMI 5.
240. The Ukiah Dispatch-Democrat reports that in Potter Valley “No material damage was done except to the chimney of the Gavin and Davis blacksmith shop, which was thrown down.” The cemetery was slightly damaged. We assigned MMI 6-7.
241. At Priest Valley, D.S. Jordan reports that "the earthquake shock was very severe. Chimneys were thrown down, dishes were broken, and the contents of the store thrown over the floor. There were slight landslides and cracks along the edge of the creek banks." We assigned MMI 6-7.
242. In Prunedale, H.H. McIntyre reports how “Nearly every chimney was thrown down. All the goods in the store were thrown to the floor… There were two small landslides from spring places, the direction of the slip being from north to south.” The Watsonville Pajaronian reports that in nearby San Miguel Canyon, “The water-tanks and windmills … are either down or moved from their proper position.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
243. S. Taber reports that at Purisima “The chimneys were all down, and crockery was broken … According to various reports, a crack east of the road below Purisima, due to a landslip, extended for about 1000 feet nearly north and south; and an earthslide on the side of a hill a mile or more farther south was about 100 yards long and 80 feet across.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
244. G.A. Waring reports "a man was killed in Quien Sabe Valley, by a rolling boulder crushing his house," but describes shaking in the valley as moderate.
245. Redwood [City] was severely damaged by the earthquake. "Over 40 houses in the town were moved upon their foundations," and "ninety-four percent of the chimneys fell." We assigned MMI 8-9.
246. The Contra Costa Gazette reports that in Richmond, “The Southern Pacific station … was lifted off its foundation and turned partly around. Houses were shaken severely and much damage was done.” Chimneys also fell, and the Oakland Enquirer reports “One of the big smokestacks of the Standard Oil works toppled over but that was the extent of the damage to the plant.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
247. Rio Del Mar is a beachside community east of Aptos. G.A. Waring reports that "thru Delmar, Seabright, and Twin Lakes, nearly all the chimneys were either down or twisted part way around." We assigned MMI 7 to all three sites.
248. In Rio Vista, J.C. Stanton reports how “It was difficult for persons to maintain their footing [but] nothing was thrown down or overturned… Some lumber piles were thrown down in a lumber yard situated upon a pile wharf… The water-tower … was seen to sway violently.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
249. In Rock Tree Valley, 5 miles northwest of Willits, J. Brashear remembers how the earthquake shook the beds, waking himself and his companions. He saw “… those big old oaks whaling back and forth. It looked like they would break off, but they didn’t.” The chimneys in the house did not fall. We assigned MMI 7.
250. Rucker is called "Bucker" by G.A. Waring: it is located 3 miles north of Gilroy. The school building was badly damaged. We assigned MMI 7-8.
251. J.A. Marshall recalls how in Sacramento, “The chandeliers seemed to be oscillating several inches… This continued, together with the rattling of the window weights.” E.C. Jones also reports how “The gas-holders rocked to such an extent that considerable water was thrown out of the tanks, and the seals of the holder sections were partially emptied, allowing gas to escape.” We assigned MMI 4-5.
252. G.A. Waring reports that “The county bridge south of Salinas was rendered unsafe by the movement of the piers at the southern end…42.5 per cent (278 out of 655) of the chimneys fell. A brick store was demolished by the collapse of the roof, and parts of a dozen or more brick walls fell.” We assigned MMI 8.
253. R. Crandall reports “The railway station at San Carlos, a low one-story building, was badly damaged, some of the walls being partly thrown down, and the rest of the building cracked. A large frame house near the station was shaken from its cement foundations, and the foundation itself was badly cracked.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
254. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports that “About six hundred dollars’ worth of statuary was broken in the Valley Church at St. Francis Orphanage yesterday morning.” The cemetery suffered moderate damage. We assigned MMI 8.
255. San Francisco was strongly damaged by the earthquake and devastated by the subsequent fire. The areas underlain by fills to the south of Market and east of Montgomery were severely damaged: many brick buildings and some wood-frame buildings collapsed with loss of life. Almost all steel-frame buildings in the downtown area appeared to survive the earthquake, although there was substantial damage to parapets and towers. The much-photographed ruins of the City Hall became the symbol for the destructive power of the earthquake and corruption of the city government. In the residential areas of the city, the shaking damage was largely confined to the fall of chimneys: relatively few wood-frame houses were thrown from their underpinnings. We assigned MMI 8-9.
256. St Johns Mine, near Vallejo, suffered damage to a shaft timbered with 8x8's that appears to have been caused by a rockburst. No intensity was assigned.
257. Downtown San Jose was severely damaged by the earthquake: many brick and stone buildings and a few wood-frame buildings were destroyed. G.F. Zoffman reports that “Forty buildings were counted, however, that were thrown off their foundations and damaged to a greater or less extent.” The strongest damage appeared to be confined to the downtown area. We assigned MMI 8-9. Smaller towns within the Santa Clara valley such as Berryessa, Evergreen, and Edenvale appear to have suffered less damage. We assigned MMI 8 to these locations.
258. At San Juan Bautista, a "weak" adobe wall at the Mission fell, as did one or two chimneys. The cemetery appears slightly damaged. We assigned MMI 6-7.
259. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports “The windmills and water-tanks on the San Juan Road are generally demoralized, and the ground is described to have sunk as much as ten feet in some places in that neighborhood.” Similarly, G.A. Waring reports “Between Pajaro and Vega the ground cracked … and the side toward the river has settled several feet.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
260. At San Leandro, "nearly every chimney was down. houses were not seriously damaged, and only two have been condemned." We assigned MMI 7-8.
261. At San Lucas, "milk and water were spilt and shelf goods disturbed" and west of San Lucas, "waves were reported to have been seen moving southward over the hills." We assigned MMI 5-6.
262. San Luis Ranch was inundated by the San Luis Reservoir. The surface of the ground appeared to move "up and down like the waves of the ocean." We assigned MMI 5-6.
263. In San Mateo, “Almost all brick and cement buildings were damaged and several were completely ruined. Many wooden structures suffered by being thrown from their foundations, while others were shifted without material damage. Nearly every brick chimney in town was shaken down, with consequent damage to the houses.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
264. San Mateo Point was renamed Coyote Point. "The alluvial flats around the point showed some small cracks. Half a mile west, part of the wharf was broken, lumber piles were overturned, and a chimney fell." We assigned MMI 7.
265. The San Pablo Slump occurred on the southwest side of the San Pablo Creek canyon. Both E.S. Larsen and F.E. Matthes visited the site, but did not describe the damage at San Pablo or Richmond. The boys who showed Larsen the slump told him that the slide initiated earlier that winter. We assigned MMI 7.
266. In San Raphael, R.S. Holway reports "Half the chimneys down." Parapets and coping on some brick buildings were damaged. We assigned MMI 7.
267. The San Vicente Lime Quarries were located at Davenport. "Little or no damage was done to the buildings or furnaces," but "men could not walk to the door of the cook-house." We assigned MMI 7-8.
268. G.F. Zoffman reports that in Santa Clara, “nearly all the brick chimneys were thrown down and most of the brick buildings were damaged.” Twenty-five headstones were thrown down in the Santa Clara Cemetery. We assigned MMI 8.
269. R. Collum describes how in Santa Cruz, “The court-house roofs and towers were wrecked, many brick chimneys were down, and communication with other towns was entirely cut off by the breaking of telephone and telegraph wires. Many buildings had their walls shaken down… At the north end of the bridge crossing the San Lorenzo River, at Third Street, there were four fissures … about 700 yards in length.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
270. Santa Rita (Contra Costa) was subsumed by East Pleasanton. The location is from the Santa Rita Women's Correctional Facility. "Chimneys had fallen on all the houses," and the levee on Tassajara Creek was cracked. We assigned MMI 7.
271. Downtown Santa Rosa was severely damaged by the earthquake. Brick, stone, and frame buildings were destroyed. “Twenty to twenty-five residences were thrown to the ground by the collapse of their underpinnings.” The cemeteries were badly damaged. We assigned MMI 9-10 to downtown Santa Rosa. In order to map the spatial extent of this strong shaking, we assigned separate intensities to the Santa Rosa cemetery, the Sonoma County Hospital, the Rincon District, Bennett Valley, Altruria, Fulton Road, and Mark West Springs.
272. F. Lane reports that the damage in Saratoga was confined to “some chimneys … knocked off.” However, the Madronia Cemetery, just south of downtown Saratoga, appears substantially damaged by the 1906 earthquake. We assigned MMI 8.
273. G.A. Waring reports “At Sargent all loose objects were thrown about, but no buildings were shifted.” We assigned MMI 7.
274. At Sausalito, “nearly all chimneys were thrown down. The earth was cracked near the station.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
275. The Fortuna Beacon reports that “Scotia’s hotel was put out of commission for several meals … the yard was strewn with wrecked lumber piles and the company will need a couple of weeks to restore things as they were.” We assigned MMI 7.
276. B. Bryan reports that in Scott Valley, “all chimneys were broken … Landslides and cracks are reported between Scott Valley and Felton, and the dam across a small lake was cracked.” We assigned MMI 8.
277. Seabright and Twin Lakes were incorporated into Santa Cruz.
278. R.S. Holway reports that many of the frame buildings in Sebastopol were completely wrecked. Nearly all of the monuments in the cemetery were thrown down. D.S. Jordan considered Sebastopol to be the area most strongly shaken in the earthquake. We assigned MMI 9-10. Men standing or walking at Burbank’s farm were thrown from their feet, as were cows and horses. We assigned MMI 9.
279. R. Crandall reports “Along the coast from Mussel Rock to Lake Merced the section known as Seven Mile Beach presented steep cliffs from 1 to 700 feet in height … along this bluff a large amount of earth slid down the slopes at the time of the shock … the roadbed was entirely destroyed for a distance of three miles.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
280. In Shellville, “About three-fourths of the chimneys were thrown or twisted.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
281. Near Shelter Cove, the McKee ranch suffered extensive ground failure. A.S. Eakle found no damage at Notley's ranch, which is within a mile of the fault. We assigned MMI 8.
282. L. McCoy reports that in Sherwood (“Snake Town”) the earthquake disrupted a large rock pile, but states “It wasn’t scary ...” The cemetery was undamaged. Jack and Charmian London “rode thro” Sherwood on their horseback tour of the coast after the earthquake and spent the night at Alpine. We assigned MMI 6-7.
283. The earthquake rattled dishes “in the tule lands” on the west side of Sierra Valley. We assigned MMI 3-4.
284. Sisson was renamed Mount Shasta. Some windows were broken and water was spilled from a railway tank. We assigned MMI 5.
285. Skaggs Spring was inundated by the Warm Springs Reservoir. "Chimneys were knocked down but no other damage was done." We assigned MMI 7.
286. Skyland Ridge is the next ridge south of Summit Ridge. G.A. Waring writes that redwoods were topped on the western slope of Skyland Ridge. In the previous paragraph, L.E. Davidson reports topped trees on a ridge 4 miles south of Wright Station that overlooks a valley with many landslides to the south. Summit Ridge extends from 1.5 miles SSE to 2.5 miles SE of Wrights Station, and suffered topped trees in the Loma Prieta earthquake. Distances at that time were measured along roads and overestimate map distances. We assigned MMI 9.
287. At Soledad, 3 out of 8 chimneys fell. We assigned MMI 7.
288. E.S. Larsen reports that in Sonoma “Chimneys were nearly all down. Some of the brick and adobe buildings were damaged.” Additionally, many local cemeteries exhibited twisted and toppled monuments. We assigned MMI 8.
289. In South San Francisco, “Many chimneys fell, but no badly wrecked houses were seen… Some of the other large brick buildings were slightly cracked… The rails [of the South San Francisco car line] are bent and broken in a number of places.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
290. Stanford University was strongly damaged by the earthquake and yielded many photographs of ruined masonry buildings. In particular, Memorial Chapel, the Library, the Men’s Gymnasium, and large sections of the Quad were destroyed. G.K. Gilbert argues that most of the worst damage to the campus could be attributed to poor construction practices. We assigned MMI 8-9.
291. Stella was the US Post Office's sanitized name for Whiskeytown. The town was inundated by the Whiskeytown Reservoir.
292. At Stewart’s Point, “The shock resulted in the destruction of an unusually large barn… the structure was leveled to the ground… All chimneys were damaged … East of Stewart’s Point, the bridge over the South Fork of the Gualala River was damaged.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
293. In Stockton, R. Crandall reports “Almost no objects fell, even in houses were there were tall vases and similar bric-à-brac… Milk and water were split in a very few cases… no damage was found except in an old 2-story building which seemed merely to have an old crack widened … Three chimneys were cracked. E. Hughes reports that “one water-tank was overturned, the supporting framework being insufficiently braced.” We assigned MMI 5.
294. Stony Point School was 2.5 miles NW of Cotati: R.S. Holway describes ground cracks at the site as well as general chimney failure and an "increasing intensity of shock from Petaluma toward the northwest" in his transit from Petaluma to Sebastopol. We assigned MMI 7-8.
295. The Southern Pacific track across the Suisun Marsh subsided 8 to 11 feet for a number of miles. We assigned MMI 7.
296. In Sunnyvale, H.P. Gage reports “Water-tanks had fallen except where they had been especially well-braced… Between Sunnyvale and Lawrence a brick winery was destroyed, and a tank and wind-mill were thrown to the ground.” We assigned MMI 7-8.
297. F.E. Matthes reports that “Over 75 percent of the chimneys in Sunol were broken… Many chimneys were cracked but were still in place. A few windows were broken, notably those of the post-office.” We assigned MMI 7.
298. Table Rock was an active gold mine in Sierra County.
299. At Ten Mile River, C. Kemppe reports “All our chimneys were knocked down… We didn’t hear the rumbling, but the bed shook and it woke us up… We looked down on the river and across the flats [and] there were great big cracks, ten, fifteen feet wide, and the water and mud were churning, just like it was boiling.” We assigned MMI 8.
300. Tesla was the location of a pottery factory in the hills SE of Livermore. One of the large chimneys for the kilns fell through the roof. We assigned MMI 6-7.
301. Thorn was renamed Thorn Junction. The damage description “Dishes were shaken from shelves” is absurdly low. No intensity was assigned.
302. F.E. Matthes reports that in Timber Cove, “The underpinning of one dwelling collapsed, all brick and tile chimneys broke off, and household articles and furniture were thrown down with violence… Landslides, in rocky as well as in loose material, have occurred in a great number of places, though none were at all extensive.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
303. At Tomales, the Catholic Church "was completely wrecked," and frame buildings were thrown from their foundations and wrecked. No monuments of any size were left standing in the cemetery except 3 low rectangular stones. There was a large landslide 3 miles northeast of town. We assigned MMI 9-10.
304. In Tracy, R. Crandall reports “The shock was not at all severe … very few objects fell… Only one brick chimney cracked, and none fell … Milk or water was spilt in only a few cases – not over 30 per cent. The water-tank of the Southern Pacific railroad at Tracy fell.” We assigned MMI 5-6.
305. At Tres Pinos, a single unstable chimney fell, and shelf goods were almost unaffected. We assigned MMI 5-6.
306. At Truckee, windows were rattled, but no objects were overthrown. We assigned MMI 3-4.
307. At Upper Clear Lake, the intensity of the shock was said to be greater than at Lakeport, but there were no brick buildings, and "only chimneys went down." The cemetery was moderately damaged. We assigned MMI 7-8.
308. A.S. Eakle reports “About 10 miles up the river at Upper Mattole, the ranch house of Mr. Roscoe was moved about two inches westerly and the chimney destroyed.” The Blue Lake Advocate reports “At Upper Mattole the houses are nearly all off their foundations, chimneys nearly all down, dishes mostly smashed… Upper Mattole school house, which has stood for over a quarter of a century, was nearly wrecked.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
309. Uvas Post Office was located southwest of Morgan Hill. G.A. Waring reports “Two miles west of Uvas Post Office, and half a mile east of the summit, an east-and-west stone wall, built of loose boulders, was thrown mostly northward; water was thrown from troughs toward the north…” We assigned MMI 8.
310. In Vacaville, E.S. Larsen reports “About 12 chimneys were cracked or thrown, some plaster was cracked, most clocks were stopt, and probably all sleepers were awakened. Things were very seldom thrown from shelves.” We assigned MMI 6.
311. Vallecito is called "Vallicita" in Lawson.
312. T.J.J. See reports that in Vallejo, “The best estimates obtainable showed that about one-tenth of the chimneys were knocked down, or so broken loose that they had to be taken down… No house in Vallejo fell… Various objects in the house were overturned, such as bookcases, bric-a-brac, and dishes on shelves; and the plastering was somewhat cracked.” We assigned MMI 6-7.
313. Vallejo Junction was located across the Carquinez Straits from Mare Island. T.J.J. See gauged the damage to be "not at all considerable," but the Contra Costa Gazette reports “the chimneys on nearly all the houses were razed.” We assigned MMI 7.
314. At Valley Ford, R.S. Holway reports “There are only three brick buildings in the village. One entire wall of the bank fell; other walls were partially wrecked. The walls of the other two buildings were partially wrecked. A large frame house just west of town shifted from its underpinning and was badly wrecked. General loss of chimneys and minor damage to small buildings resulted from the shock… A landslide of several hundred yards in length … is found on the side of the valley directly east of town.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
315. At Volta, 6 of 7 chimneys were thrown down, but no frame buildings were thrown from their foundations. We assigned MMI 7-8.
316. In Walnut Creek, F.E. Matthes reports “About 50 per cent of all chimneys were thrown down. A water-tank at the livery stable fell. Goods in the grocery store were thrown down in quantities… Two barns, weak structures, were moved slightly from their foundations. Plaster in several houses was cracked.” We assigned MMI 7.
317. Warm Springs Hotel "was but slightly damaged, only a little plaster falling." Two chimneys fell. We assigned MMI 6-7.
318. In Watsonville, G.A. Waring reports “About 90 per cent of the chimneys were broken off at the roof-line… Several were cracked and twisted but not thrown down… Parts of a few brick walls near the river fell.” The Watsonville Pajaronian reports extensive damage to brick buildings in the downtown area, and some damage to wood-frame buildings. We assigned MMI 8. The damage to buildings in the low-land across the Pajaro appears similar. The Watsonville Pajaronian reports less damage to Watsonville Heights where “The damage to the [Hospital] was confined to the downfall of three chimneys …”
319. West Side was renamed Cupertino in 1898. A school-house on wooden supports was thrown from its foundation, and the bridge over Stevens Creek was shifted. Some chimneys were thrown down. We assigned MMI 8.
320. M.M. Bates reports that in Westport, “All but one of the chimneys were shaken down. Large tanks that were on the ground were destroyed, but those built on framework were not damaged. Large cracks were made in the ground, and after the heavy rains of this winter (March 1907), large landslides occurred. Goods were thrown off shelves in the store.” The cemetery was moderately damaged. We assigned MMI 8.
321. At Williams, G.K. Gilbert reports “the shock was strong enough to awaken people but not throw down chimneys. It is said that small cracks were made in the walls of the hotel, a brick building. We assigned MMI 5-6.
322. R.S. Holway reports that Willits was strongly damaged. “Brick chimneys were quite generally wrecked. The Buckner Hotel was completely demolished. One wall fell at the time of the shock, killing Mr. Taylor, the proprietor… The stores of the Irvine Muir Company were badly wrecked… Brick walls fell in several other stores, and frame buildings were in some cases thrown from their foundations.” The Little Lake Cemetery was moderately damaged. We assigned MMI 8. The shaking appears to have been weaker at Muir Canyon and Rock Tree Valley.
323. Willow Camp was renamed Stinson Beach. "All brick chimneys fell," and several cottages were shifted, but many frame buildings were not damaged. Dipsea, on the sand-spit to the west of Willow Creek and thereby closer to the fault, suffered similarly. We assigned MMI 8-9.
324. In Willows, A.W. Sehorn reports that “The motion increased until the weights in the window-frames rattled considerably; trees swayed back and forth as in a hurricane… The clock was stopt, and the bed felt as if someone were pulling it. Chimneys were not injured.” We assigned MMI 5-6.
325. R.S. Holway reports that in Windsor “Two or three brick buildings were badly wrecked, and the water-tank at the railway station was overthrown.” The Shiloh cemetery, about 1.5 miles south of Windsor, was moderately damaged. We assigned MMI 8.
326. The earthquake was "felt" at Winnemucca by a single person, a nurse lying at rest who saw a hanging lamp swing 3 inches, but did not feel any motion. We assigned MMI 1 or "not felt." This assignment makes Paradise Valley, Unionville, and Mina the easternmost sites where the earthquake was felt in Nevada (see the map of Nevada sites and the discussion of the report from Eureka NV).
327. In Woodside, S. Taber reports “North of the road along the foot of the mountain near Woodside, a one-story sandstone house had its south wall thrown down, and was otherwise badly damaged… The upper part of a brick winery 1.5 stories high was demolished, the roof being split down the middle and smashed to pieces… The old adobe house at the cross-roads in the village of Woodside was thrown down.” We assigned MMI 8-9.
328. Near Woodville, G.K. Gilbert reports “the buildings of E.R. Strain … stand about 20 rods east of the fault-trace, … The house did not leave its brick foundation, but the foundation was cracked. Chimneys were thrown down. The other buildings were thrown from their underpinning, moving eastward. Milking was in progress in the barnyard. Some cows were thrown down, and Mr. Strain himself was thrown to the ground, …” We assigned MMI 8-9.
329. At Wright Station, all the chimneys on the ridge fell. There was extensive ground cracking. Most good buildings were wrecked, water pipes were broken and twisted. The Summit Hotel was wrecked, and several redwood trees were snapped off. We assigned MMI 9-10.
330. At the Veterans Home in Yountville, "the buildings constructed of stone and brick had two corners thrown down and the walls cracked. The chimneys on some of the buildings were twisted around, and some tumbled over." We assigned MMI 7-8.
This figure shows the intensity sites in eastern California and Nevada described in the section "East of the Sierra Nevada." This section contains separate contributions from G.D. Louderback and J.A. Reid. The intensity assigned to the site is indicated by the color of the surrounding dot. The site list in the Louderback contribution is divided into a northern and a southern set of sites. Louderback traveled through Nevada and personally interviewed people in towns from Reno to Winnemucca, in an attempt to determine the eastern limit of the earthquake felt area. The ordering of the northern set of intensity sites is indicated by the shaded line that runs from Round Hole to Winnemucca. The four candidate locations for the Fairview site are shown as small yellow circles with the county labeled: the location near Fairview Peak in Churchill County is clearly the most appropriate. The ordering of the southern set of sites is indicated by the shaded line that runs from Hawthorne to Keeler. The reports from these sites have been obtained from correspondence rather than personal interviews. In particular, the report from Eureka was obtained from correspondence and cannot be corroborated: we have drawn the shaded line for the southern set of sites through it because it is included in Lawson’s list, but we have assigned an intensity. J.A. Reid gives felt reports for 12 sites mostly in Washoe County, but also includes a felt report from Paradise Valley, 20 miles north of Winnemucca.
Strategies for Locating 1906 Intensity Sites
Many of the sites where shaking effects are reported in Lawson (1908) and other sources have since disappeared, been renamed, or been inundated by reservoirs. While the one-time port of Alviso still exists as a backwater town, nearby Jagel Landing and Guth Landing disappeared when the bay receded. Rural hamlets such as Peachtree, Hames, and Dove lost their Post Offices as farming evolved and families moved away. Small towns like Elmhurst, Fitchburg, and Decoto were absorbed into larger cities and suburbs. Most of the mines active at the turn of the century were played out and abandoned over the next three decades. This physical and economic evolution of the California landscape turned the problem of locating many sites into historical puzzles.
Lawson and his co-authors depended on personal descriptions of the earthquake shaking and effects for many sites they were unable to visit themselves. Almost all of these descriptions came to the California Earthquake Commission by post. When he compiled the sections on the distribution of shaking intensity, Lawson generally used the name of the post office to identify the site. The detailed 1896 and 1901 Post Office Maps of California and Nevada that can be accessed on the David Rumsey Map Collection website became a critical resource for locating the Lawson sites.
Almost all of the Lawson' intensity sites are shown on the 1986 or 1901 Post Office maps, with road distances between post offices indicated. To locate "lost" post offices such as Uvas, Altruria, or Mulberry, we used the geographical information available in David Durham’s comprehensive California’s Geographical Names. A number of sites (the Cantua Creek landslide, Central San Joaquin County, and two sites with ground cracks around Covelo) were given as section, township, and range: these sites were readily located on the modern topographic quads. The locations of only three of the Lawson intensity sites remain uncertain: Junction City (near San Leandro), Mountain House (near Pacheco Pass), and Elkhorn Roadhouse (southeast of Paicines).
For areas such as Santa Rosa and Santa Clara, where the intensity was mapped in detail, but which lie outside of Map 21, the historical quadrangle maps posted on the Bay Area Regional Database website were tremendously useful, particularly the 1899 Palo Alto and San Jose quads. In addition to permitting readers to reconstruct the transits that Lawson’s co-authors followed, these 15' quadrangle maps give a remarkable sense of the California landscape at the turn of the century.
David Rumsey Map Collection [choose the Insight Browser, then search by keywords "1896" or "1901"]