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Open-File Report 2011–1253

Estimates of Electricity Requirements for the Recovery of Mineral Commodities, with Examples Applied to Sub-Saharan Africa

By Donald I. Bleiwas

Thumbnail of and link to report PDFIntroduction

To produce materials from mine to market it is necessary to overcome obstacles that include the force of gravity, the strength of molecular bonds, and technological inefficiencies. These challenges are met by the application of energy to accomplish the work that includes the direct use of electricity, fossil fuel, and manual labor. The tables and analyses presented in this study contain estimates of electricity consumption for the mining and processing of ores, concentrates, intermediate products, and industrial and refined metallic commodities on a kilowatt-hour per unit basis, primarily the metric ton or troy ounce. Data contained in tables pertaining to specific currently operating facilities are static, as the amount of electricity consumed to process or produce a unit of material changes over time for a great number of reasons. Estimates were developed from diverse sources that included feasibility studies, company-produced annual and sustainability reports, conference proceedings, discussions with government and industry experts, journal articles, reference texts, and studies by nongovernmental organizations.

First posted September 28, 2011

For additional information contact:

USGS National Minerals Information Center
988 National Center
Reston, VA 20192

http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/

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Suggested citation:

Bleiwas, D.I., 2011, Estimates of electricity requirements for the recovery of mineral commodities, with examples applied to sub-Saharan Africa: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1253, 100 p.



Contents

Introduction

Analytical Applications of Electricity Consumption Estimates

Limitations on Use of Estimates

References

Examples of an Application of Electricity Consumption Data

Appendix 1. Electricity Requirements for the Production of Selected Mineral Commodities


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