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Professional Paper 1651

Prepared in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

Edited by Stanley E. Church, Paul von Guerard, and Susan E. Finger

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Professional Paper 1651
Table of Contents
Front Matter
PDF (336 kB)

This publication comprises a Volume Contents of chapters (listed below) and a CD-ROM of data (contents shown in column at right).

The Animas River watershed in southwest Colorado is one of many watersheds in the western United States where historical mining has left a legacy of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements in surface streams. U.S. Geological Survey scientists have completed a major assessment of the environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed focusing on the area upstream of Silverton, Colo.—the Mineral Creek, Cement Creek, and upper Animas River basins. The study demonstrated how the watershed approach can be used to assess and rank mining-affected sites for possible cleanup. The study was conducted in collaboration with State and Federal land-management agencies and regional stakeholders groups.

This book is available for purchase at Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

Version 1.0

Posted March 2008

Database from Volume's accompanying CD-ROM.


Suggested citation:

Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., 2007, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1,096 p. plus CD-ROM. [In two volumes.]



Front Matter PDF (336 kB)—includes a Volume Contents, which is defined below:

Volume 1

A. Summary and conclusions from investigation of the effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado PDF (83.4 MB)

By U.S. Geological Survey

B. The Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado PDF (13.5 MB)

By Paul von Guerard, Stanley E. Church, Douglas B. Yager, and John M. Besser

C. History of mining and milling practices and production in San Juan County, Colorado, 1871–1991 PDF (293 MB)

Table 1. Summary of metal production from mines in San Juan County [expanded version] PDF (224 kB)

By William R. Jones

D. Impacts of historical mining on aquatic ecosystems—An ecological risk assessment PDF (1.3 MB)

By John M. Besser, Susan E. Finger, and Stanley E. Church

E. Watershed-Scale Characterization and Investigation of Processes Responsible for Environmental Effects of Historical Mining

E1. Geologic framework PDF (204.3 MB)

Plate 1. Generalized geologic map of part of the Animas River watershed and vicinity, Silverton, Colorado, by D.B. Yager and D.J. Bove PDF (21.9 MB)

Plate 2. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs andsprings in part of the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, by D.B. Yager, S.E. Church, P.L. Verplanck, and Laurie Wirt PDF (2.8 MB)

By Douglas B. Yager and Dana J. Bove

E2. Imaging spectroscopy applied to the Animas River watershed and Silverton caldera PDF (10 MB)

By J. Bradley Dalton, Dana J. Bove, Carol S. Mladinich, and Barnaby W. Rockwell

E3. Major styles of mineralization and hydrothermal alteration and related solid- and aqueous-phase geochemical signatures PDF (8.5 MB)

By Dana J. Bove, M. Alisa Mast, J. Bradley Dalton, Winfield G. Wright, and Douglas B. Yager

E4. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys PDF (5.9 MB)

Plate 3. Total field magnetic map of the Animas River watershed study area, Colorado, by B.D. Smith, R.R. McDougal, Maryla Descz-Pan, and D.B. Yager PDF (3.3 MB)

Plate 4. Apparent conductivity map of the Animas River watershed study area, Colorado, by B.D. Smith, R.R. McDougal, Maryla Descz-Pan, and D.B. Yager PDF (3.1 MB)

By Bruce D. Smith, Robert R. McDougal, Maryla Deszcz-Pan, and Douglas B. Yager

E5. Mine inventory and compilation of mine-adit chemistry data PDF (1.2 MB)

By Stanley E. Church, M. Alisa Mast, E. Paul Martin, and Carl L. Rich

E6. Mine adits, mine-waste dumps, and mill tailings as sources of contamination PDF (84 MB)

By J. Thomas Nash and David L. Fey

E7. Characterization of background water quality PDF (16.1 MB)

By M. Alisa Mast, Philip L. Verplanck, Winfield G. Wright, and Dana J. Bove

E8. Aqueous-sulfate stable isotopes—A study of mining-affected and undisturbed acidic drainage PDF (327 kB)

By D. Kirk Nordstrom, Winfield G. Wright, M. Alisa Mast, Dana J. Bove, and Robert O. Rye

E9. Quantification of metal loading by tracer injection and synoptic sampling, 1996–2000 PDF (1.8 MB)

By Briant A. Kimball, Katherine Walton-Day, and Robert L. Runkel

E10. Distribution of pH values and dissolved trace-metal concentrations in streams PDF (13.1 MB)

By Winfield G. Wright, William Simon, Dana J. Bove, M. Alisa Mast, and Kenneth J. Leib

Volume 2

E11. Characterization of mainstem streams using water-quality profiles PDF (367 kB)

By Kenneth J. Leib, M. Alisa Mast, and Winfield G. Wright

E12. Trace elements and lead isotopes in modern streambed and terrace sediment—Determination of current and premining geochemical baselines PDF (118.4 MB)

By Stanley E. Church, David L. Fey, and Daniel M. Unruh

E13. Topographic, geophysical, and mineralogical characterization of geologic structures using a statistical modeling approach PDF (102.8 MB)

By Robert R. McDougal, Anne E. McCafferty, Bruce D. Smith, and Douglas B. Yager

E14. Formation and geochemical significance of iron bog deposits PDF (31.2 MB)

By Mark R. Stanton, Douglas B. Yager, David L. Fey, and Winfield G. Wright

E15. Ferricrete classification, morphology, distribution, and carbon-14 age constraints PDF (51.3 MB)

By Philip L. Verplanck, Douglas B. Yager, Stanley E. Church, and Mark R. Stanton

E16. Geomorphology of Cement Creek and its relation to ferricrete deposits PDF (379 kB)

Plate 5. Surficial geologic deposits along Cement Creek, upstream of Silverton, Colorado, by K.R. Vincent, S.E. Church, and Laurie Wirt PDF (28.3 MB)

By Kirk R. Vincent, Stanley E. Church, and Laurie Wirt

E17. Geochemical and hydrologic processes controlling formation of ferricrete PDF (15.7 MB)

By Laurie Wirt, Kirk R. Vincent, Philip L. Verplanck, Douglas B. Yager, Stanley E. Church, and David L. Fey

E18. Status of stream biotic communities in relation to metal exposure PDF (314 kB)

By John M. Besser and William G. Brumbaugh

E19. Toxicity of metals in water and sediment to aquatic biota PDF (330 kB)

By John M. Besser and Kenneth J. Leiby

E20. Effects of mining on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and monitoring strategy PDF (460 kB)

Appendix. 1997 pre-remediation baseline data PDF (32 kB)

By Chester R. Anderson

E21. Application of physical habitat simulation in the evaluation of physical habitat suitability PDF (195 kB)

By Robert T. Milhous

E22. Response of the upper Animas River downstream from Eureka to discharge of mill tailings PDF (70.6 MB)

Plate 6. Stratigraphy of late Holocene channel and flood-plain deposits exposed in a trench excavated across the Animas River valley floor 1.4 kilometers downstream of the Eureka townsite, San Juan County, Colorado, by K.R. Vincent and J.G. Elliot PDF (576 kB)

By Kirk R. Vincent and John G. Elliott

E23. Effects of the May Day mine site on stream-water quality in the Cement Creek basin, August 2000 PDF (2.2 MB)

By Winfield G. Wright, Briant A. Kimball, and Robert L. Runkel

E24. Using the OTIS solute-transport model to evaluate remediation scenarios in Cement Creek and the upper Animas River PDF (2.7 MB)

By Katherine Walton-Day, Suzanne S. Paschke, Robert L. Runkel, and Briant A. Kimball

E25. Processes affecting the geochemical composition of wetland sediment PDF (744 kB)

By Mark R. Stanton, David L. Fey, Stanley E. Church, and Charles W. Holmes

F. Potential for successful ecological remediation, restoration, and monitoring PDF (213 kB)

By Susan E. Finger, Stanley E. Church, and Paul von Guerard

G. Digital databases and CD-ROM for the Animas River watershed PDF (1.3 MB)

By Tracy C. Sole, Matthew Granitto, Carl L. Rich, David W. Litke, and Richard T. Pelltier



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