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U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750

A Volcano Rekindled: The Renewed Eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006

Edited by David R. Sherrod, William E. Scott, and Peter H. Stauffer

2008

Abstract

Thumbnail of and link to introductory PDF (6.6 MB)

Mount St. Helens began a dome-building eruption in September 2004 after nearly two decades of quiescence. Dome growth was initially robust, became more sluggish with time, and ceased completely in late January 2008. The volcano has been quiet again since January 2008.

Professional Paper 1750 describes the first 1½ years of this eruptive activity, chiefly from September 2004 until December 2005. Its 37 chapters contain contributions of 87 authors from 23 institutions, including the U.S. Geological Survey, Forest Service, many universities, and local and State emergency management agencies. Chapter topics range widely—from seismology, geology, geodesy, gas geochemistry, and petrology to the human endeavor required for managing the public volcanic lands and distributing information during the hectic early days of a renewed eruption.

In PDF format, the book may be downloaded in its entirety or by its topical sections, each section including a few prefatory paragraphs that describe the general findings, recurrent themes, and, in some cases, the unanswered questions that arise repeatedly. Those readers who prefer downloading the smaller files of only a chapter or two have this option available as well.

Readers are directed to chapter 1 for a general overview of the eruption and the manner in which different chapters build our knowledge of events. More detailed summaries for specific topics can be found in chapter 2 (seismology), chapter 9 (geology), chapter 14 (deformation), chapter 26 (gas geochemistry), and chapter 30 (petrology).

The printed version of the book may be purchased as a hardback weighty tome (856 printed pages) that includes a DVD replete with the complete online version, including all chapters and several additional appendixes not in the printed book.

Sections

Introductory material consisting of the covers, title page, foreword, list of contributing organizations, and contents, (15-page PDF; 6.6 MB)

Overview (22-page PDF; 22 MB)

Seismicity of the Eruption (118-page PDF; 72 MB)

Geological Observations of Lava-Dome Growth (136-page PDF; 176 MB)

Geodesy and Remote Sensing (106-page PDF; 132 MB)

Models and Mechanics of Eruptive Processes (106-page PDF; 81 MB)

Crisis Management (31-page PDF; 42 MB)

Volcanic Emissions (71-page PDF; 45 MB)

Petrological and Geochemical Investigations of Eruptive Products (268-page PDF; 119 MB)

Chapters

Chapter 1: Overview of the 2004 to 2006, and Continuing, Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by William E. Scott, David R. Sherrod, and Cynthia A. Gardner (20-page PDF; 15.7 MB)

Chapter 2: Seismicity Associated with Renewed Dome Building at Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, by Seth C. Moran, Stephen D. Malone, Anthony I. Qamar, Weston A. Thelen, Amy K. Wright, and Jacqueline Caplan-Auerbach (34-page PDF; 16.1 MB)

Chapter 3: Near-Real-Time Information Products for Mount St. Helens—Tracking the Ongoing Eruption, by Anthony I. Qamar, Stephen D. Malone, Seth C. Moran, William P. Steele, and Weston A. Thelen (10-page PDF; 7.2 MB)

Chapter 4: Absolute and Relative Locations of Earthquakes at Mount St. Helens, Washington, Using Continuous Data: Implications for Magmatic Processes, by Weston A. Thelen, Robert S. Crosson, and Kenneth C. Creager (25-page PDF; 8.1 MB)

Chapter 5: Broadband Characteristics of Earthquakes Recorded During a Dome-Building Eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, Between October 2004 and May 2005, by Stephen P. Horton, Robert D. Norris, and Seth C. Moran (14-page PDF; 5.8 MB)

Chapter 6: Seismicity and Infrasound Associated with Explosions at Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, by Seth C. Moran, Patrick J. McChesney, and Andrew B. Lockhart (17-page PDF; 15.6 MB)

Chapter 7: Seismic-Monitoring Changes and the Remote Deployment of Seismic Stations (Seismic Spider) at Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, by Patrick J. McChesney, Marvin R. Couchman, Seth C. Moran, Andrew B. Lockhart, Kelly J. Swinford, and Richard G. LaHusen (12-page PDF; 7.2 MB)

Chapter 8: Use of Digital Aerophotogrammetry to Determine Rates of Lava Dome Growth, Mount St. Helens, Washington, 2004–2005, by Steve P. Schilling, Ren A. Thompson, James A. Messerich, and Eugene Y. Iwatsubo (23-page PDF; 37.5 MB)

Chapter 9: Growth of the 2004–2006 Lava-Dome Complex at Mount St. Helens, Washington, by James W. Vallance, David J. Schneider, and Steve P. Schilling (40-page PDF; 26.5 MB)

Chapter 10: Photogeologic Maps of the 2004–2005 Mount St. Helens Eruption, by Trystan M. Herriott, David R. Sherrod, John S. Pallister, and James W. Vallance (16-page PDF; 11.9 MB)

Chapter 11: Remote Camera Observations of Lava Dome Growth at Mount St. Helens, Washington, October 2004 to February 2006, by Michael P. Poland, Daniel Dzurisin, Richard G. LaHusen, Jon J. Major, Dennis Lapcewich, Elliot T. Endo, Daniel J. Gooding, Steve P. Schilling, and Christine G. Janda (12-page PDF; 15.5 MB)

Chapter 12: Extrusion Rate of the Mount St. Helens Lava Dome Estimated from Terrestrial Imagery, November 2004–December 2005, by Jon J. Major, Cole G. Kingsbury, Michael P. Poland, and Richard G. LaHusen (19-page PDF; 43.3 MB)

Chapter 13: Effects of Lava-Dome Growth on the Crater Glacier of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by Joseph S. Walder, Steve P. Schilling, James W. Vallance, and Richard G. LaHusen (20-page PDF; 27.3 MB)

Chapter 14: Constraints and Conundrums Resulting from Ground-Deformation Measurements Made During the 2004–2005 Dome-Building Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by Daniel Dzurisin, Michael Lisowski, Michael P. Poland, David R. Sherrod, and Richard G. LaHusen (20-page PDF; 21.1 MB)

Chapter 15: Analysis of GPS-Measured Deformation Associated with the 2004–2006 Dome-Building Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by Michael Lisowski, Daniel Dzurisin, Roger P. Denlinger, and Eugene Y. Iwatsubo (33-page PDF; 14.6 MB)

Chapter 16: Instrumentation in Remote and Dangerous Settings; Examples Using Data from GPS “Spider” Deployments During the 2004–2005 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by Richard G. LaHusen, Kelly J. Swinford, Matthew Logan, and Michael Lisowski (11-page PDF; 8.1 MB)

Chapter 17: Use of Thermal Infrared Imaging for Monitoring Renewed Dome Growth at Mount St. Helens, 2004, by David J. Schneider, James W. Vallance, Rick L. Wessels, Matthew Logan, and Michael S. Ramsey (13-page PDF; 10.1 MB)

Chapter 18: Radar Interferometry Observations of Surface Displacements During Pre- and Coeruptive Periods at Mount St. Helens, Washington, 1992–2005, by Michael P. Poland and Zhong Lu (22-page PDF; 61.6 MB)

Chapter 19: From Dome to Dust: Shallow Crystallization and Fragmentation of Conduit Magma During the 2004–2006 Dome Extrusion of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by Katharine V. Cashman, Carl R. Thornber, and John S. Pallister (27-page PDF; 45.8 MB)

Chapter 20: Frictional Properties of the Mount St. Helens Gouge, by Peter L. Moore, Neal R. Iverson, and Richard M. Iverson (10-page PDF; 2 MB)

Chapter 21: Dynamics of Seismogenic Volcanic Extrusion Resisted by a Solid Surface Plug, Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, by Richard M. Iverson (36-page PDF; 12.5 MB)

Chapter 22: Constraints on the Size, Overpressure, and Volatile Content of the Mount St. Helens Magma System from Geodetic and Dome-Growth Measurements During the 2004–2006+ Eruption, by Larry G. Mastin, Evelyn Roeloffs, Nick M. Beeler, and James E. Quick (28-page PDF; 6.6 MB)

Chapter 23: Managing Public and Media Response to a Reawakening Volcano: Lessons from the 2004 Eruptive Activity of Mount St. Helens, by Peter M. Frenzen and Michael T. Matarrese (11-page PDF; 21.4 MB)

Chapter 24: Hazard Information Management During the Autumn 2004 Reawakening of Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington, by Carolyn L. Driedger, Christina A. Neal, Tom H. Knappenberger, Deborah H. Needham, Robert B. Harper, and William P. Steele (15-page PDF; 3.8 MB)

Chapter 25: Pre- and Post-Eruptive Investigations of Gas and Water Samples from Mount St. Helens, Washington, 2002 to 2005, by Deborah Bergfeld, William C. Evans, Kenneth A. McGee, and Kurt R. Spicer (20-page PDF; 3.6 MB)

Chapter 26: Emission Rates of CO2, SO2, and H2S, Scrubbing, and Preeruption Excess Volatiles at Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, by Terrence M. Gerlach, Kenneth A. McGee, and Michael P. Doukas (29-page PDF; 16.5 MB)

Chapter 27: Chlorine Degassing During the Lava Dome-Building Eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, by Marie Edmonds, Kenneth A. McGee, and Michael P. Doukas (17-page PDF; 8.7 MB)

Chapter 28: The Pleistocene Eruptive History of Mount St. Helens, Washington, from 300,000 to 12,800 Years Before Present, by Michael A. Clynne, Andrew T. Calvert, Edward W. Wolfe, Russell C. Evarts, Robert J. Fleck, and Marvin A. Lanphere (35-page PDF; 13.9 MB)

Chapter 29: Identification and Evolution of the Juvenile Component in 2004–2005 Mount St. Helens Ash, by Michael C. Rowe, Carl R. Thornber, and Adam J.R. Kent (18-page PDF; 9.1 MB)

Chapter 30: Petrology of the 2004–2006 Mount St. Helens Lava Dome—Implications for Magmatic Plumbing and Eruption Triggering, by John S. Pallister, Carl R. Thornber, Katharine V. Cashman, Michael A. Clynne, Heather A. Lowers, Charles W. Mandeville, Isabelle K. Brownfield, and Gregory P. Meeker (56-page PDF; 52.5 MB)

Chapter 31: Magmatic Conditions and Processes in the Storage Zone of the 2004–2006 Mount St. Helens Dacite, by Malcolm J. Rutherford and Joseph D. Devine III (23-page PDF; 5.8 MB)

Chapter 32: Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Petrology of Amphibole in Mount St. Helens 2004–2006 Dacite, by Carl R. Thornber, John S. Pallister, Heather A. Lowers, Michael C. Rowe, Charles W. Mandeville, and Gregory P. Meeker (28-page PDF; 10.5 MB)

Chapter 33: Evolving Magma Storage Conditions Beneath Mount St. Helens Inferred from Chemical Variations in Melt Inclusions from the 1980–1986 and Current (2004–2006) Eruptions, by Jon Blundy, Katharine V. Cashman, and Kim Berlo (36-page PDF; 3.7 MB)

Chapter 34: Plagioclase Populations and Zoning in Dacite of the 2004–2005 Mount St. Helens Eruption: Constraints for Magma Origin and Dynamics, by Martin J. Streck, Cindy A. Broderick, Carl R. Thornber, Michael A. Clynne, and John S. Pallister (18-page PDF; 5.9 MB)

Chapter 35: Trace Element and Pb Isotope Composition of Plagioclase from Dome Samples from the 2004–2005 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, by Adam J.R. Kent, Michael C. Rowe, Carl. R. Thornber, and John S. Pallister (18-page PDF; 3 MB)

Chapter 36: 238U-230Th-226Ra Disequilibria in Dacite and Plagioclase from the 2004–2005 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, by Kari M. Cooper and Carrie T. Donnelly (20-page PDF; 0.7 MB)

Chapter 37: Timing of Degassing and Plagioclase Growth in Lavas Erupted from Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, from 210Po-210Pb-226Ra Disequilibria, by Mark K. Reagan, Kari M. Cooper, John S. Pallister, Carl R. Thornber, and Matthew Wortel (10-page PDF; 0.5 MB)

Version 1.0

Posted March 20, 2009
Modified May 4, 2009

  • Contents PDF. This file consists of a split-off of the table of contents and the list of contributing organizations, (6-page PDF; 152 kB)
  • Sections folder. This folder contains a split-off file for each of the eight sections in the report. These files range in size from 22-176 MB and total 689 MB
  • Chapters folder. This folder contains a split-off file for each of the 37 chapters in the report. These files range in size from 1-62 MB and total 622 MB
  • Appendixes folder. This folder contains digital appendixes for eight of the chapters. These files total 2.3 GB
  • Note: The next link is to a single file that is so large it would fill a CD-ROM; it will take a long time to download once you select it.

  • Entire large report PDF (872 pages; 697 MB)

For additional information contact:
David Sherrod

Cascades Volcano Observatory

Volcano Hazards Program


This report is also available in print from:

USGS Information Services, Box 25286,
Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225
telephone: 888 ASK-USGS; e-mail: infoservices@usgs.gov


Part of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); at least version 7 of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

The appendix for Chapter 12 a presented as a movie file (MPG); a viewer such as Apple Quicktime or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Quicktime, free of charge.


Suggested citation:

Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., 2008, A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750, 856 p. and DVD-ROM [http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1750/].



Contents

Foreword

Anthony I. Qamar

Overview

Seismicity of the Eruption

Geological Observations of Lava-Dome Growth

Geodesy and Remote Sensing

Models and Mechanics of Eruptive Processes

Crisis Management

Volcanic Emissions

Petrological and Geochemical Investigations of Eruptive Products

Appendixes on DVD-ROM (and linked above)


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