U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1760-G
A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial–Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities caused by low lake levels may be detectable where fine-grained ferrimagnets are concentrated in peaty sediments.
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Ager, T.A., and Rosenbaum, J.G., 2009, Late glacial-Holocene pollen-based vegetation history from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in Haeussler, P.J., and Galloway, J.P., eds., Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1760-G, 19 p.
Interpretations of Vegetation and Climate History