Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5245

In cooperation with the National Park Service

An Inventory of Terrestrial Mammals at National Parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

By Andrew T. Gilbert, Allan F. O’Connell, Jr., Elizabeth M. Annand, Neil W. Talancy, John R. Sauer, and James D. Nichols

Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5245

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Abstract

An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.


Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Goals and Objectives

Physiography and Climate

Historical Research, Surveys, and Inventories of Mammals

Methods

Approach to Inventory Design

Spatial Sampling Design and Sampling-Point Allocation

Stratification

Systematic Sampling Scheme

Assigning Sampling Points

Locating Sampling Points

Temporal Sampling Scheme

Indirect Measure Sampling

Remote Cameras

Trackplates

Hair Traps

Trapping

Observation Cards

Historical Voucher Specimen Records

Data Collection

Data Analyses

Weir Farm National Historic Site (WEFA)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Morristown National Historical Park (MORR)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites (ROVA)

Background

Prior Research

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Minute Man National Historical Park (MIMA)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site (SAIR)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site (SAGA)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (MABI)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Saratoga National Historical Park (SARA)

Background

Prior Research

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Acadia National Park (ACAD)

Background

Prior Research

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Sagamore Hill National Historic Site (SAHI)

Background

Prior Investigations

Sampling Stations

Survey Results

Species Expected but Not Detected

Endangered and Threatened Species

Suggestions for Further Study

Acknowledgments

References Cited

Appendix A. ArcObjects programming code for the macro developed to generate a sampling grid in ArcMap 8.1

Appendix B. ArcObjects programming code for the macro developed to draw randomized systematic samples by strata in ArcMap 8.1

Appendix C. Method employed for generating randomized systematic samples

Appendix D. Protocols for indirect measure sampling

Appendix E. Identification of mammalian hair

Appendix F. Observation card used in the Northeast Temperate Network mammal inventory

Appendix G. Field data sheets distributed to park staff

Appendix H. Identified hairs collected during the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site mammal inventory based on physical characteristics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis

Figures

1. Map showing National Park units and representative ecoregions in the northeastern United States included in the 2004 mammal inventory of the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site in the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network

2–5. Diagram showing—

2. Steps used to select sampling points for the 2004 mammal inventory using a grid system, vegetation strata, and random point placement

3. Steps used to calculate the sampling frame and assign sampling points for the 2004 mammal inventory

4. Design of indirect measure stations used to detect mammals in the 2004 mammal inventory

5. Small mammal trap lines and placement of squirrel-sized and fox-sized live traps used in the 2004 mammal inventory of national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

6–35. Map showing—

6. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Weir Farm National Historic Site

7. Species diversity results for trapping and indirect measure sampling stationsduring the 2004 mammal inventory at Weir Farm National Historic Site

8. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Morristown National Historical Park-Jockey Hollow Unit

9. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Morristown National Historical Park-New Jersey Brigade Unit

10. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure stations during the 2004mammal inventory at Morristown National Historical Park-Jockey Hollow Unit

11. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure stations during the 2004mammal inventory at Morristown National Historical Park-New Jersey Brigade Unit

12. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site

13. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site

14. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site

15. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site

16. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site

17. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site

18. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory in the western part of Minute Man National Historical Park

19. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory in the eastern part of Minute Man National Historical Park

20. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory in the western part of Minute Man National Historical Park

21. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory in the eastern part of Minute Man National Historical Park

22. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site

23. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the2004 mammal inventory at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site

24. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site

25. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site

26. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park

27. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park

28. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment,and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Saratoga National Historical Park

29. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Saratoga National Historical Park

30. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices used in the 2004mammal inventory at Acadia National Park (Mount Desert Island-west)

31. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Acadia National Park (Mount Desert Island-east)

32. Species diversity at indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Acadia National Park (Mount Desert Island-west)

33. Species diversity at indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Acadia National Park (Mount Desert Island-east)

34. Locations of remote cameras and other detection devices, trapping equipment, and orientation of small-mammal trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

35. Species diversity at trapping and indirect measure sampling stations during the 2004 mammal inventory at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

Tables

1. The number of mammal species that theoretically could occur in each of 10 project parks and the 90 percent documentation goal established by the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program

2. Geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to develop strata for parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site mammal inventory

3. Temporal sampling scheme used in the mammal inventory at parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

4. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and the start of the Longworth trap line, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines used in the 2004 mammal inventory at Weir Farm National Historic Site.

5. Community type associations of mammals detected at Weir Farm National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

6. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at eight indirect measure stations at Weir Farm National Historic Site during two sampling sessions in 2004

7. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for eight trapping stations (four with fox-sized live traps) at Weir Farm National Historic Site during sampling session 1 (1/20/2004–2/7/2004)

8. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for eight trapping stations (four with fox-sized live traps) at Weir Farm National Historic Site during sampling session 2 (6/7/2004–6/22/2004)

9. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Weir Farm National Historic Site

10. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Morristown National Historical Park

11. Community type associations of mammals detected at Morristown National Historical Park by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

12. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 11 indirect measure stations at Morristown National Historical Park during two sampling sessions in 2004

13. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for 11 trapping stations (6 with fox-sized live traps) at Morristown National Historical Park during sampling session 2 (6/21/2004–7/7/2004)

14. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Morristown National Historical Park

15. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites

16. Community type associations of mammals detected at Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

17. Community type associations of mammals detected at Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

18. Community type associations of mammals detected at Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

19. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 12 indirect measure stations at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site during two sampling sessions in 2004

20. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for 11 trapping stations (6 with fox-sized live traps) at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site during sampling session 2 (8/2/2004–8/18/2004)

21. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites

22. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Minute Man National Historical Park

23. Community type associations of mammals detected at Minute Man National Historical Park by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

24. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 12 indirect measure stations at Minute Man National Historical Park during two sampling sessions in 2004

25. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for 10 trapping stations (6 with fox-sized live traps) at Minute Man National Historical Park during sampling session 2 (7/19/2004–8/2/2004)

26. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Minute Man National Historical Park

27. Locations of sampling equipment used for the mammal inventory at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site and the community type where equipment was located

28. Community type associations of mammals detected at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

29. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at two indirect measure stations at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site during two sampling sessions in 2004

30. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for two trapping stations at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site during sampling session 2 (9/20/2004–10/4/2004)

31. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site

32. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site

33. Community type associations of mammals detected at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

34. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 11 indirect measure stations at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site during two sampling sessions in 2004

35. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for 10 trapping stations (6 with fox-sized live traps) at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site during sampling session 2 (9/27/2004–10/22/2004)

36. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site

37. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park

38. Community type associations of mammals detected at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

39. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 14 indirect measure stations at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park during two sampling sessions in 2004

40. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for 12 trapping stations (6 with fox-sized live traps) at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park during sampling session 2 (10/12/2004–10/26/2004)

41. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park

42. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Saratoga National Historical Park

43. Community type associations of mammals detected at Saratoga National Historical Park by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

44. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 16 indirect measure stations at Saratoga National Historical Park during two sampling sessions in 2004

45. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for 12 trapping stations (8 with fox-sized live traps) at Saratoga National Historical Park during sampling session 2 (11/1/2004–11/22/2004)

46. Mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Saratoga National Historical Park

47. Mammal species identified in other studies at Acadia National Park

48. Indirect measure (IM) station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations, and orientation of IM stations at Acadia National Park

49. Community type associations of mammals detected at Acadia National Park by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

50. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at 12 indirect measure stations at Acadia National Park during one sampling session in 2004

51. Number of mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Acadia National Park

52. Indirect measure (IM) and trap station numbers, community type, GPS locations of the camera at IM stations and beginning of the Longworth trap lines, orientation of IM stations, and bearing of trap lines at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

53. Community type associations of mammals detected at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site by indirect measure sampling, trapping, and observation

54. Mammal species detection rates and site occupancy at seven indirect measure stations at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site during two sampling sessions in 2004

55. Mammal capture rates and site occupancy for seven trapping stations (four with fox-sized live traps) at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site during sampling session 2 (11/16/2004–11/23/2004)

56. Mammal specimens in museum collections and their proximity to Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

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