Techniques and Methods 2-A7
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Chapter 7 of
Section A, Biological Science
Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data
Prepared in cooperation with the North Coast and Cascades Network, National Park Service
By Samuel J. Brenkman, National Park Service; and Patrick J. Connolly, U.S. Geological Survey
Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries.
This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network.
Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish movements and abundances in rivers. One underlying assumption is that the monitoring program is designed in perpetuity, and consequently our capability to detect trends substantially increases with time.
The protocol describes sampling designs, methods, training procedures, safety considerations, data management, data analysis, and reporting. The allocation of sampling effort represents a balance between ecological considerations, a sound monitoring approach, and practical limitations caused by logistical constraints and a limited annual budget of $55,000. The widespread declines of native fish species in western North America highlights the importance and urgency of understanding trends in fish assemblages from undisturbed habitats. Seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages will provide insights at the individual, population, and assemblage level.
This protocol will allow managers to detect increases and decreases in abundance of priority management species, and occurrence of non-native, hatchery, and federally listed fish. The detection of trends in fish assemblages will allow for specific management actions that may include: implementation of more appropriate fishing regulations, evaluation of existing hatchery releases, control of non-native fish species, and prioritization of habitat restoration projects. Dissemination and communication of scientific findings on North Coast and Cascades Network fish assemblages will be a core product of this protocol, which will have much relevance to decision makers, park visitors, researchers, and educators.
2. Sampling Design
3. Methods of Sampling
4. Pre-Field Operations
5. Field Operations
6. Data Handling, Analysis, and Reporting
7. Revisions to Protocol
8. References Cited
SOP 1: Use of GPS and Data Downloading
SOP 2: Data Entry and Verification
SOP 3: Data Quality Review and Certification
Appendix A. Photographs of Fish Species Commonly Observed in NCCN Rivers
Appendix B. Photographs and Locations of Reference Sites for the Eight Rivers in Olympic National Park
Appendix C. Power to Detect Regional Trends in Run Size Using the Maximum Count
After 5, 7, 10, and 15 Years of Multiple Annual Snorkel Survey in Each of Five Rivers
Appendix D. Power to Detect Trends on Individual Rivers in Run Size Using the Maximum Count
After 5, 7, 10, and 15 Years of Multiple Annual Snorkel Surveys in a Single River
Appendix E. Example of Snorkel Data Form Used in River Surveys
Appendix F. Example of Electrofishing Data Form Used in River and Stream Surveys
Appendix G. Existing Section 10A1a Permit Issued by NOAA Fisheries for Sampling in MORA That Is Valid
through December 31, 2011
Appendix H. Yearly Project Task List
Appendix I. Database Documentation
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