USGS

Methods For Collection and Analysis of Aquatic Biological and Microbiological Samples

U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 5, Chapter A4

By L.J. Britton and P.E. Greeson, Editors


Table of Contents

Preface

Contributors

Abstract

Introduction

Part 1: Description of methods

Bacteria

Introduction

Collection

Surface water

Ground water

Soil and sediment

Sample containers

Dechlorination

Cheating agent

Preservation and storage

References cited

Standard plate count (membrane-filter method)

Total coliform bacteria (membrane-filter method)

Immediate incubation test

Delayed incubation test

Total coliform bacteria (most-probable-number, MPN, method)

Presumptive test

Presumptive on-site test

Confirmation test

Fecal coliform bacteria (membrane filter method)

Immediate incubation test

Fecal coliform bacteria (most-probable-number, MPN, method)

Presumptive test

Fecal streptococcal bacteria (membrane-filter method)

Immediate incubation test

Confirmation test

Fecal streptococcal bacteria (most-probable-number, MPN, method)

Presumptive and confirmation test

Nitrifying bacteria (most-probable-number, MPN, method)

De-nitrifying and nitrate-reducing bacteria (most-probable-number, MPN, method)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (most-probable-number, MPN, method)

Total bacteria (epifluorescence method)

Salmonella and Shigella (diatomaceous-earth and membrane filter method)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (membrane-filter method)

Phytoplankton

Introduction

Collection

Precision

References cited

Counting-cell method

Inverted-microscope method

Permanent-slide method for planktonic diatoms

Zooplankton

Introduction

Collection

References cited

Counting-cell method

Gravimetric method for biomass

Seston (total suspended matter)

Introduction

Collection

References cited

Glass-fiber filter method

Periphyton

Introduction

Collection

Sampling from natural substrates

Sampling from artificial substrates

References cited

Sedgwick-Rafter method

Gravimetric method for biomass

Permanent-slide method for periphytic diatoms

Inverted microscope method for the identification and enumeration of periphytic diatoms

Macrophytes

Introduction

Collection

References cited

Floral survey (qualitative method)

Distribution and abundance (quantitative method)

Benthic invertebrates

Introduction

Collection

Faunal surveys

Dip or hand net

Dredges

Numerical assessment

Dip or hand net

Individual rocks

Artificial substrates

Multiple-plate sampler

Barbecue-basket sampler

Collapsible-basket sampler

Distribution and abundance

Box, drum, or stream-bottom fauna sampler

Surber sampler

Ekman grab

Ponar and Van Veen grabs

Corers

Invertebrate drift

Drift density

Drift rate

Sample preparation

Sample sorting

Apparatus

Reagents

Procedure

References cited

Faunal survey (qualitative method)

Numerical assessment (relative or semi-quantitative method)

Distribution and abundance (quantitative method)

Invertebrate drift

Permanent-slide method for larvae of Chironomidae

Method for identification of immature Simuliidae

Permanent and semi-permanent slide method for aquatic Acari

Aquatic vertebrates

Introduction

Collection

Active sampling gear

Seines

Bag seine

Straight seine

Trawls

Electrofishing

Ichthyocides

Hook and line

Passive sampling gear

Investigation of fish kills

Preparation and storage

References cited

Faunal survey (qualitative method)

Life history (quantitative method)

Methods for investigation of fish and other aquatic vertebrate kills

Cellular contents

Introduction

Collection

References cited

Chlorophyll in phytoplankton by spectroscopy

Chlorophyll in phytoplankton by chromatography and spectroscopy

Chlorophyll in phytoplankton by high-pressure liquid chromatography

Chlorophyll in phytoplankton by chromatography and fluorometry

Biomass/chlorophyll ratio for Phytoplankton

Chlorophyll in periphyton by spectroscopy

Chlorophyll in periphyton by chromatography and spectroscopy

Chlorophyll in periphyton by high-pressure liquid chromatography

Chlorophyll in periphyton by chromatography and fluorometry

Biomass/chlorophyll ratio for periphyton

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Primary productivity (production rate)

Introduction

Collection

Oxygen light- and dark- bottle method for phytoplankton

Carbon-14 method for phytoplankton

Oxygen light-and dark-enclosure method for periphyton

Natural substrate

Diel oxygen-curve method for estimating primary productivity

Single-station analysis

Two-station analysis

Diffusion rate

Hydraulic-parameter method

Floating-diffusion-dome method

Nighttime rate-of-change method

References cited

Oxygen light- and dark-bottle method for phytoplankton

Carbon-14 light- and dark-bottle method for phytoplankton

Supplemental information

Interferences and limitations

Toxins

Analytical problems

Environmental variables

Sample containment

Respiration

Excretion

Duration of incubation

Handling and disposal of radioactive wastes

References cited

Oxygen light- and dark- enclosure method for periphyton

Diel oxygen-curve method for estimating primary productivity and community metabolism in streams

Diel oxygen-curve method for estimating primary productivity and community metabolism in stratified water

Bioassay

Introduction

Collection

Algal growth potential (AGP), spikes for nutrient limitation

Supplemental information

References cited

Part 2: Glossary

References cited

Part 3: Selected taxonomic references


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