USGS

Reconnaissance of Stream Geomorphology, Low Streamflow, and Stream Temperature in the Mountaintop Coal-Mining Region, Southern West Virginia, 1999-2000

U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4092

Prepared in cooperation with the WEST VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, OFFICE OF MINING AND RECLAMATION

By Jeffrey B. Wiley, Ronald D. Evaldi, James H. Eychaner, and Douglas B. Chambers

A pdf is available for this report.


Abstract

The effects of mountaintop removal coal mining and the valley fills created by this mining method in southern West Virginia were investigated by comparing data collected at valley-fill, mined, and unmined sites. Bed material downstream of valley-fill sites had a greater number of particles less than 2 millimeters and a smaller median particle size than the mined and unmined sites. At the 84th percentile of sampled data, however, bed material at each site type had about the same size particles.

Bankfull cross-sectional areas at a riffle section were approximately equal at valley-fill and unmined sites, but not enough time has passed and insufficient streamflows since the land was disturbed may have prevented the stream channel at valley-fill sites from reaching equilibrium. The 90-percent flow durations at valley-fill sites generally were 6-7 times greater than at unmined sites. Some valley-fill sites, however, exhibited streamflows similar to unmined sites, and some unmined sites exhibited streamflows similar to valley-fill sites. Daily streamflows from valley-fill sites generally are greater than daily streamflows from unmined sites during periods of low streamflow. Valley-fill sites have a greater percentage of base-flow and a lower percentage of flow from storm runoff than unmined sites. Water temperatures from a valley-fill site exhibited lower daily fluctuations and seasonal variations than water temperatures from an unmined site.

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Description of study area

Background

Data collection

Geomorphology

Low streamflow measurements

Continuous streamflow and stream temperature

Stream geomorphology

Bed material

Channel characteristics

Low streamflow characteristics

Stream temperature

Summary

References Cited


For addtional information contact:

 

District Chief

U.S. Geological Survey

11 Dunbar Street

Charleston, WV 25301

 

or visit our site on the World Wide Web at:

 

http://wv.water.usgs.gov

 

Copies of this report can be purchased from:

 

U.S. Geological Survey,

Branch of Information Services

Box 25286, Federal Center

Denver, CO 80225-0286

 


The text and graphics are presented here in pdf format (print quality):

The full report is 4.6MB.

If you have Adobe Reader installed on your computer, you may view and/or print the PDF version of this report. If you do not have Reader, you may download it here.

Users with visual disabilities can visit this site for conversion tools and information to help make PDF files accessible.



 

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014092
Page Contact Information: GS Pubs Web Contact
Last modified: Thursday, July 28 2011, 06:44:17 PM
FirstGov button  Take Pride in America button