Publications—Water-Resources Investigations Report 02 –4278
By Phillip J. Zarriello
U.S. Geological Survey Water–Resources Investigations Report 02–4278
Prepared in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
This report is available in Portable Document Format (PDF):
WRIR 02-4278 (2.2 MB) - 58 pages
A Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model previously
developed for the Ipswich River Basin was modified to simulate
the hydrologic response and firm yields of the water-supply systems
of Lynn, Peabody, and Salem-Beverly. The updated model, expanded
to include a portion of the Saugus River Basin that supplies water
to Lynn, simulated reservoir system storage over a 35-year period
(1961-95) under permitted withdrawals and hypothetical restrictions
designed to maintain seasonally varied streamflow for aquatic
habitat. A firm yield was calculated for each system and each
withdrawal restriction by altering demands until the system failed.
This is considered the maximum withdrawal rate that satisfies
demands, but depletes reservoir storage.
Simulations indicate that, under the permitted withdrawals, Lynn and Salem-Beverly were able to meet demands and generally have their reservoir system recover to full capacity during most years; reservoir storage averaged 83 and 82 percent of capacity, respectively. The firm yields for the Lynn and Salem-Beverly systems were 11.4 and 12.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), respectively, or 8 and 21 percent more than average 1998-2000 demands, respectively. Under permitted withdrawals and average 1998-2000 demands, the Peabody system failed in all years; thus Peabody purchased water to meet demands. The firm yield for the Peabody system is 3.70 Mgal/d, or 37 percent less than the average 1998-2000 demand.
Simulations that limit withdrawals to levels recommended by the Ipswich River Fisheries Restoration Task Group (IRFRTG) indicate that under average 1998-2000 demands, reservoir storage was depleted in each of the three systems. Reservoir storage under average 1998-2000 demands and IRFRTG-recommended streamflow requirements averaged 15, 22, and 71 percent of capacity for the Lynn, Peabody, Salem-Beverly systems, respectively. The firm-yield estimates under the IRFRTG-recommended streamflow requirements were 6.02, 1.94, and 7.69 Mgal/d or 43, 64, and 34 percent less than the average 1998-2000 demands for the Lynn, Peabody, and Salem-Beverly systems, respectively. Simulations that limit withdrawals from the Saugus River to a less stringent set of restrictions (based on an Instream Flow Incremental Methodology study) than those previously simulated indicate that the firm yield of the Lynn system is about 31 percent less than the average 1998-2000 withdrawals (7.31 Mgal/d).
Purpose and Scope
Lynn Water-Supply System
Peabody Water-Supply System
Salem-Beverly Water-Supply System
Water Withdrawal Restrictions
Model Fit to High Flows
Modifications to the HSPF Model
Simulated Reservoir Storage and Firm Yield
Discussion of Simulation Results
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Suggested Citation: Zarriello,P.J., 2002, Simulation of Reservoir Storage and Firm Yields of Three Surface-Water Supplies, Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts, WRI 02-4278, 56 p.
For additional information write to:
USGS Massachusetts–Rhode Island Water Science Center
10 Bearfoot Road
Northborough, MA 01532
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Last modified: Monday, 02-Apr-2007 12:15:58 EDT