The availability of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area is influenced by many factors including location, local recharge and ground-water flow conditions, and structural features. Thus, the availability of ground water can be extremely variable throughout the Black Hills area, and even when water is available, it may not be suitable for various uses depending on the water quality.
The major bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Minor bedrock aquifers occur in other hydrogeologic units, including confining units, due to fracturing and interbedded permeable layers.
Various information and maps are presented in this report that describe availability and quality of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area. However, there is no guarantee of obtaining usable water at any location due to the extreme potential variability in conditions that can affect the availability and quality of ground water in the area. Maps presented in this report include the distribution of hydrogeologic units; depth to the top of the five formations that contain major aquifers; thickness of the five formations that contain major aquifers; potentiometric maps for the five major aquifers; saturated thickness of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers; water temperature in the Madison aquifer; specific conductance in the Madison, Minnelusa, and Inyan Kara aquifers; hardness in the Inyan Kara aquifer; sulfate concentrations in the Minnelusa aquifer; and radon concentrations in the Deadwood aquifer.
Water quality of the major aquifers generally is very good in and near outcrop areas but deteriorates progressively with distance from the outcrops. In the Minnelusa aquifer, an abrupt increase in concentrations of dissolved sulfate occurs downgradient from outcrop areas, where a zone of active anhydrite dissolution occurs.
Most limitations for the use of ground water are related to aesthetic qualities associated with hardness and high concentrations of chloride, sulfate, sodium, manganese, and iron. Very few health-related limitations exist for ground water; most limitations are for radionuclides, such as radon and uranium. In addition, high concentrations of arsenic have been measured in a few samples from the Minnelusa aquifer.
Description of Study Area
Availability of Ground-Water Resources
Characteristics of Major Aquifers
Characteristics of Minor Aquifers
Water Quality of Ground-Water Resources
General Characteristics for Major Aquifers
General Characteristics for Minor Aquifers
Ground-Water Quality Relative to Water Use
This report is available online in Portable Document Format (PDF). If you do not have the Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader, it is available for free download from Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Download the full report (PDF, 23.2MB).
The report can be downloaded in parts for a faster download time:
Pages 0-10 (5.1MB)
Pages 11-16 (5.8MB)
Pages 17-24 (5.1MB)
Pages 25-36 (5.6MB)
Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Acrobat Reader 5.0 for Windows (English only), which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.
Send questions or comments about this report to the author, J.M. Carter (605) 355-4560 ext. 215.
For more information about USGS activities in South Dakota, visit the USGS South Dakota District home page.
|USGS||Water||Biology||Geology||Mapping||WRI Pubs Reports||Water Related Pubs|
|U.S. Department of the Interior,
U.S. Geological Survey
Maintainer: Publications Team
Last update: 07:48:27 Fri 21 Feb 2003
Privacy Statement || Disclaimer || Accessibility