The 1996 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier Basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 0.87 meter on April 18, 1996, 1.1 standard deviation below the long-term average; the maximum winter snow balance, 1.06 meters, was reached on May 28, 1996; and the net balance (from August 30, 1995, to August 24, 1996) was -0.53 meter, 0.53 standard deviation below the long-term average. The annual balance (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1996) was -0.37 meter. Area-averaged balances were reported using both the 1967 and 1993 area altitude distributions (the numbers previously given in this abstract use the 1993 area altitude distribution). Net balance was about 25 percent less negative using the 1993 area altitude distribution than the 1967 distribution.
Annual average air temperature was 0.9 degree Celsius warmer than that recorded with the analog sensor used since 1966. Total precipitation catch for the year was 0.78 meter, 0.8 standard deviations below normal. The annual average wind speed was 3.5 meters per second in the first year of measuring wind speed. Annual runoff averaged 1.50 meters over the basin, 1.0 standard deviation below the long-term average.
Glacier-surface altitude and ice-motion changes measured at three index sites document seasonal ice-speed and glacier-thickness changes. Both showed a continuation of a slowing and thinning trend present in the 1990s.
The glacier terminus and lower ablation area were defined for 1996 with a handheld Global Positioning System survey of 126 locations spread out over about 4 kilometers on the lower glacier margin. From 1949 to 1996, the terminus retreated about 1,650 meters for an average retreat rate of 35 meters per year.
Description of Gulkana Glacier Basin and Its Climate
Measurement System and Terminology
Area Altitude Distribution
Glacier Mass Balance
Balance at Specific Sites
Measured and Maximum Winter Snow Balances
Annual Mass Balance
Accumulation Area Ratio and Equilibrium Line Altitude
March, R.S., 2003, Mass Balance, Meteorology, Area Altitude Distribution, Glacier-Surface Altitude, Ice Motion, Terminus Position, and Runoff at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1996 Balance Year: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4095, 33 p.
For additional information contact:
U.S. Geological Survey
3400 Shell Street
Fairbanks, AK 99701-7245
Telephone: (907) 479-5645
Complete accessible text of report (2.6 MB PDF)
To view PDF documents, you must have the Adobe Acrobat Reader (free
from Adobe Systems) installed on your computer.
(download free copy of Acrobat Reader).
Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Acrobat Reader 5.0 for Windows (English only), which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.
|AccessibilityFOIAPrivacyPolicies and Notices|
|U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri034095
Page Contact Information: GS Pubs Web Contact
Last modified: Thursday, September 01 2005, 02:23:40 PM