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Chemical and Biological Quality of Surface Water at the U.S. Army Atterbury Reserve Forces Training Area near Edinburgh, Indiana, September 2000 through July 2001

By Martin R. Risch

U.S. Geological Survey
Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4149

ABSTRACT

 A base-wide assessment of surface-water quality at the U.S. Army Atterbury Reserve Forces Training Area near Edinburgh, Indiana, examined short-term and long-term quality of surface water flowing into, across, and out of a 33,760-acre study area. The 30-day geometric-mean concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) in water samples from all 16 monitoring sites on streams in the study area were greater than the Indiana recreational water-quality standard. None of the bacteria concentrations in samples from four lakes exceeded the standard. Half the samples with bacteria concentrations greater than the single-sample standard contained chemical tracers potentially associated with human sewage. Increased turbidity of water samples was related statistically to increased bacteria concentration. Lead concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms per liter were detected in water samples at seven monitoring sites. Lead in one sample collected during high-streamflow conditions was greater than the calculated Indiana water-quality standard. With the exception of Escherichia coli and lead, 211 of 213 chemical constituents analyzed in water samples did not exceed Indiana water-quality standards. Out of 131 constituents analyzed in streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples from three sites in the Common Impact Area for weapons training, the largest concentrations overall were detected for copper, lead, manganese, strontium, and zinc. Fish-community integrity, based on diversity and pollution tolerance, was rated poor at one of those three sites. Compared with State criteria, the fish-community data indicated 8 of 10 stream reaches in the study area could be categorized as "fully supporting" aquatic-life uses.


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CONTENTS

Abstract

Introduction

Purpose and Scope

Acknowledgments

Description of the Study Area

History and Physical Setting

Topography, Physiography, Geology, and Soils

Climate

Hydrology

Study Methods

Study Design
Conceptual Model of Hydrogeology and Contaminant Transport

Chemical and Biological Assessments

Selection of Monitoring Sites

Instantaneous-Streamflow Measurements

Chemical Assessment

Selection of Monitoring Constituents

Collection of Surface-Water Samples

Collection of Streambed-Sediment Samples

Collection of Fish-Tissue Samples

Analytical Methods

Quality-Assurance Program

Biological Assessment

Microbiological Analysis of Water

Fish-Community Inventories

Benthic-Macroinvertebrate-Community Inventories

Qualitative Habitat Evaluation

Surface-Water Quality

Streamflow Conditions

Chemical Quality

Water-Sample Analysis and Quality Assurance

Chemical Analysis of Streambed-Sediment Samples

Chemical Analysis of Fish-Tissue Samples

Biological Quality

Microbiological Data

Fish-Community Inventories

Benthic-Macroinvertebrate-Community Inventories

Qualitative Habitat Evaluations

Short-Term and Long-Term Conditions

Base-Wide Water Quality

Microbiological Contamination

Water Quality at the Impact Area

Uncertainties of Data and Interpretations

Summary

References

Appendixes

1.Constituent reporting limits for analysis of water, streambed-sediment, and fish-tissue samples collected at Camp Atterbury near Edinburgh, Indiana, September 2000 through July 2001

2.Characteristics and physical properties of water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

3.Concentrations of dissolved and total recoverable major ions and total nutrients in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 and July 2001

4.Concentrations of dissolved and total trace elements in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 and July 2001

5.Concentrations of Escherichia coli, instantaneous streamflow, and water-quality characteristics in water samples collected from monitoring sites on streams at Camp Atterbury, May and June 2001

6.Fish species, abundance, and total weight in stream reaches near 10 monitoring sites at Camp Atterbury, September and October 2000

Figures

1–5. Maps showing:
1. Study area and surrounding region, Camp Atterbury near Edinburgh, Indiana

2. Physiographic units of Camp Atterbury study area

3. Surficial geology of Camp Atterbury study area

4. Age of bedrock beneath Camp Atterbury study area

5. Soil regions of Camp Atterbury study area

6. Cross-section diagram of conceptual model for hydrogeology and contaminant transport at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 through July 2001

7. Map showing monitoring sites for assessment of surface-water quality at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 through July 2001

8. Illustration of filter plate with Escherichia coli colonies

9–11. Photographs showing:

9. Fish sorting, weighing, and measuring during a fish-community inventory at Camp Atterbury, October 2000

10. Surber sampler in use for collection of benthic-macroinvertebrate sample at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

11. Aquatic insects of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, typical of pollution-intolerant benthic macroinvertebrates

12–13. Hydrographs showing:
12. Daily mean streamflow at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 03362000 on Youngs Creek near Edinburgh, Indiana, August 1, 2000, through August 31, 2001, with period of water sampling at Camp Atterbury

13. Daily mean streamflow at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 03362000 on Youngs Creek near Edinburgh, Indiana, and instantaneous streamflow from monitoring sites at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

14. Map showing monitoring sites and 30-day geometric mean Escherichia coli concentrations in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, May 14 through June 14, 2001

15. Boxplot of Escherichia coli concentrations in water samples collected from 16 monitoring sites on streams at Camp Atterbury, May 14 through June 14, 2001

16–17. Charts showing:

16. Number of taxa and two numerical indexes for benthic-macroinvertebrate-community inventories at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

17. Concentrations of Escherichia coli and detections of wastewater tracers in water samples collected from 14 monitoring sites on streams at Camp Atterbury, May 14 through June 14, 2001

18. Map showing selected monitoring sites with chemical and biological assessment of surface-water quality at Camp Atterbury, September and October 2000

Tables

1. Description of monitoring sites for assessment of surface-water quality at Camp Atterbury near Edinburgh, Indiana, September 2000 through July 2001

2. Coordinates, altitude, and watershed characteristics of monitoring sites for assessment of surface-water quality at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 through July 2001

3. Constituents and analytical methods for water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 through July 2001

4. Constituent groups and analytical methods for water, streambed-sediment, and fish-tissue samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 through July 2001

5. Wastewater tracers analyzed in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, May 14 through June 14, 2001

6. Daily mean streamflow at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 03362000 on Youngs Creek near Edinburgh, Indiana, and instantaneous streamflow on water-sampling dates at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 and July 2001

7. Summary statistics for water-quality characteristics and physical properties of water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 and July 2001

8. Radiological determinations for water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

9. Summary statistics for dissolved major ions and nutrients in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 and July 2001

10. Summary statistics for trace elements in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000 and July 2001

11. Physical properties of streambed-sediment samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

12. Concentrations of trace elements detected in streambed-sediment samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

13. Comparative statistics for concentrations of selected trace elements detected in streambed-sediment samples collected at Camp Atterbury, Indiana, September 2000, and from the White River Basin, Indiana, 1992 and 1994–96

14. Characteristics of fish-tissue samples collected at Camp Atterbury, October 2000

15. Concentrations of trace elements detected in fish-tissue samples collected at Camp Atterbury, October 2000

16. Concentrations of Escherichia coli in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

17. Concentrations of Escherichia coli in water samples collected at Camp Atterbury, May 14 through June 14, 2001

18. Species identified during fish-community inventories at Camp Atterbury, September and October 2000

19. Summary of fish-community inventories at Camp Atterbury, September and October 2000

20. Fish-community-integrity classes and attributes for Index of Biotic Integrity and Modified Index of Well-Being scores

21. Numerical indexes for fish-community inventories and habitat evaluations at Camp Atterbury, September and October 2000

22. Benthic-macroinvertebrate-community inventories at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

23. Hilsenhoff Biotic Index score ranges and water-quality-evaluation ratings

24. Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index metrics and scores at Camp Atterbury, September 2000

25. Wastewater tracers detected in water samples collected from 13 monitoring sites on streams at Camp Atterbury, May 14 through June 14, 2001

26. Wastewater tracers detected in a water sample collected from monitoring site B5 on Lick Creek at Camp Atterbury, May 16, 2001


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