USGS

In cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation

Water-Resources Investigations Report 03–4250

Flood-Frequency Characteristics of Wisconsin Streams

By J.F. Walker and W.R. Krug

The PDF for the report is 1,558 kb

Plate 1. Map of Wisconsin showing location of streamflow-gaging stations, crest-stage partial-record stations, and regulation stations (709 Kb PDF).

Plate 2. Map of Wisconsin showing soil permeability (2,094 Kb PDF).


Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Flood-Peak Data-Collection Network

Flood-Frequency Analysis

Regression Analysis and Flood-Frequency Equations

Application of Estimation Techniques

Summary and Conclusions

References Cited

Figures

Figure 1. 25-year, 24-hour rainfall in Wisconsin by climatic section (rainf...

Figure 2. Mean annual snowfall from 1961 through 1990, in inches, in Wiscon...

Figure 3. Flood-frequency areas in Wisconsin.

Figure 4. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequen...

Figure 5. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequen...

Figure 6. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequen...

Figure 7. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequen...

Tables

Table 1. Comparison of regression results for ordinary least squares (OLS) ...

Table 2. Flood-frequency equations for streams in Wisconsin

Table 3. Ranges of basin characteristics used in regression analysis

Table A-1. Flood discharges at selected recurrence intervals and WRC skew f...

Table A-2. Drainage-basin characteristics for rural streamflow-gaging stati...

Plates

Plate 1. Map of Wisconsin showing location of streamflow-gaging stations, crest-stage partial-record stations, and regulation stations

Plate 2. Map of Wisconsin showing soil permeability


Abstract

Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

Introduction

Flood-frequency information is needed for the design of bridges, culverts, highways, flood-protection structures, and for effective flood-plain management. This study was done in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. This report is the fifth within a long-term study of flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams. Collectively these studies make up what is referred to as the flood-frequency project.

Previous Work

The first report in the series (Ericson, 1961) developed two sets of regression equations (with and without channel slope as a parameter) for several geographic areas in the state. The second report in the series (Conger, 1971) updated the original report by including additional flood-peak data, refining the geographic areas, and including snowfall as an independent variable. The next version of the report (Conger, 1981) included updated flood-peak data, refined the geographic areas, and added rainfall intensity as an independent variable. The fourth incarnation of the report (Krug and others, 1992) included updated flood-peak data, provided further refinement of the geographic areas, and included an evaluation of alternative land-use data and various regionalization techniques. Other reports that include methods for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams were done by Wiitala (1965) and Patterson and Gamble (1968). This report uses the same geographic areas as in the previous report (Krug and others, 1992), includes additional flood-peak data, and updates the values for snowfall and rainfall intensity. Additional data used in this report increase the confidence in estimating techniques and supersede those published in previous reports.

Purpose and Scope

This report includes a description of flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams where annual peak streamflow data have been collected, presents equations for estimating flood-frequency characteristics at ungaged sites, and includes a discussion of the development of the equations. Additional flood-peak data were collected at the crest-gage stations at most of the same sites as previous studies, with the data-collection period ending in 2000. These stations help provide a uniform distribution of sites throughout the state and a long-term record of flood-peak data.

Because operation of continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations is not part of the flood-frequency project, the locations and lengths of record at these sites are controlled by other needs. Therefore, the distribution and lengths of record are not as uniform as at crest-gage sites. Continuous-record flood-peak data in this study were collected at 175 streamflow-gaging stations whereas the data used by Conger (1981) were collected at 78 stations.

Acknowledgments

Mari Dantz and Bernard Lenz of the Wisconsin District Office of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) were instrumental in updating rainfall and snowfall data and performing some of the preliminary regression analyses.

Flood-Peak Data-Collection Network

Flood-peak data used in this study were collected at 137 crest-gage stations and 175 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations located throughout the state (plate 1). Only the peak stage of a flood is recorded at a crest-stage station. The recorded maximum stage for each year is converted to discharge by a stage-discharge relation for each station. At continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, a continuous record of stream stage is recorded. The maximum stage for the year is selected and is converted to discharge by a stage-discharge relation. Stations with at least 10 years of record located on rural streams were included. On the basis of these criteria, 312 stations were included in the report. Flood-peak data are available for 104 crest-gage stations and for 108 streamflow-gaging stations now operated (2000) and from 33 crest-gage stations and 67 streamflow-gaging stations that have been discontinued. Of the continuous-record stations, 32 are on streams that are regulated. Sites were classified as regulated based on knowledge of the flow system and hydrologic judgement. The 104 crest-gage stations are operated as part of the flood-frequency project. Most of the crest gages have been operated since the late 1950's or early 1960's. Several stations started to operate around 1970 in northeastern Wisconsin when the first analysis of the data showed the need for more data in this area. Data through the 2000 water year were used for the analysis in this report. Therefore, at least 28 years of flood-peak data were used for most stations; however, about 18 years of flood-peak data were used for some stations in the northeastern part of the state.


Plate 1. Map of Wisconsin showing location of streamflow-gaging stations, crest-stage partial-record stations, and regulation stations (709 Kb PDF).


Annual peak stages and discharges for all crest-gage stations and streamflow-gaging stations used in the study are available by request from the Wisconsin District Office of USGS or from the world-wide-web on the internet via the following URL: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis/peak.

Flood-Frequency Analysis

Flood-frequency analyses define the relation of flood-peak magnitude to probability of exceedance or recurrence interval. Probability of exceedance is the percentage chance that a given flood magnitude will be exceeded in any year. Recurrence interval is the reciprocal of percent probability of exceedance divided by 100 and is the average number of years between exceedances. For example, a flood having a probability of exceedance of 1 percent has a recurrence interval of 100 years. Recurrence intervals imply no regularity of exceedance; a 100-year flood might be exceeded in consecutive years or it might not be exceeded in a 100-year period.

Flood-frequency analyses were performed at all rural streamflow-gaging stations with a period of record equal to or exceeding 10 years. Guidelines in Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (1982)(commonly referred to as Bulletin 17B) were used to fit logarithms of annual peak discharges to the Pearson Type III distribution. For stations on unregulated streams, the generalized skew from the map in Bulletin 17B was weighted with the station skew to give a weighted skew. Estimates of discharges at several recurrence intervals in the range from 2 to 100 years for each station were computed and are given in Appendix table A-1.

Sites on the main stem of the Wisconsin River received additional analyses. Krug and House (1980) modeled the system of reservoirs and their operation to simulate the flood peaks on the Wisconsin River for water years 1915 through 1976. The flood frequencies given for the Wisconsin River in this study (Appendix table A-2) include the simulated peaks (Krug and House, 1980, Appendix B) and the observed peaks for water years 1977 through 2000. These flood frequencies are considered the most up-to-date estimates of the flood potential of the existing system of reservoirs and their operating policies.

Regression Analysis and Flood-Frequency Equations

Multiple-regression analysis was used to estimate the relation between flood discharges for given frequencies and drainage-basin characteristics for 200 selected streamflow-gaging stations in Wisconsin. The sites selected, which were the same as those used by Krug and others (1992), were rural, unregulated sites with at least 10 years of record and known basin characteristics. The multiple regression technique is a means of transferring flood-peak characteristics from sites where observed data are available to ungaged locations. The relation is presented by flood-frequency equations.

The regression equations are used to relate the most significant drainage-basin characteristics (independent variables) to flood-peak characteristics (dependent variables; Q2, Q5…, Q100). The multiple-regression model can be expressed in the following form:

Q sub T equals alpha multiplied by A to the a power, multiplied by B to the b power, multiplied by C to the c power, etc., multiplied by M to the m power.(1)

where QT is flood magnitude, in cubic feet persecond, having a T-year recurrence interval;

α is regression constant defined by regression analysis;

A, B, C, … M are basin characteristics; and

a, b, c, … m are regression coefficients defined by regression analysis.

This form of the multiple-regression model is achieved by linear regression of the logarithms of the variables.

The principal method of regression analysis used in the study is called generalized least squares (GLS) and was developed by Tasker and others (1986) and Stedinger and Tasker (1985). This method was used because of its theoretical advantages over the ordinary least squares (OLS) method and the conventional weighted least squares (WLS) method.

In the OLS method, all the estimates of T-year floods are implicitly assumed to have equal variance; that is, the T-year flood estimate at each streamflow-gaging station is assumed to be as accurate as the T-year flood estimates at all other stations used in the regression, regardless of record length and site variability. Furthermore, in the OLS method, the concurrent flood peaks at different sites are assumed to be uncorrelated or independently distributed. In general, these two conditions are not met by flood-peak records. The accuracy of the T-year flood estimates varies with the length of record and variability of the annual peak discharges at each site. Many concurrent annual floods in an area are cross-correlated because the stations in the area are subject to similar weather systems.

In the GLS method, the variable accuracy of the T-year flood estimates and the cross-correlation between stations are considered. With this method, information is provided for analyzing the network of streamflow-gaging stations and crest gages. This network analysis capability may prove to be useful in future studies.

Drainage-Basin Characteristics

The drainage-basin characteristics determined by the multiple-regression analyses to be significant were drainage area, main-channel slope, storage, forest cover, 25-year precipitation index, mean annual snowfall, and soil permeability. The characteristics used in the regression equations are listed in Appendix table A-2 at the back of this report for each station. They are defined as follows:

1. Drainage area (A), in square miles, is the area contributing directly to surface runoff. This area can be planimetered from topographic maps or can be taken directly for some sites from the report on drainage ares in Wisconsin by Henrich and Daniel (1983). If the drainage area is taken from the report by Henrich and Daniel, any area not contributing directly to surface runoff should be subtracted from the total drainage area.

2. Main-channel slope (S), in feet per mile, is the slope of the stream between points that are 10 percent and 85 percent of the distance along the channel from the streamflow-gaging station to the basin divide, determined from topographic maps.

3. Storage (ST), expressed as a percentage of the drainage area, includes lakes, ponds, and wetlands determined from USGS maps and Soil Conservation Service data. A constant of 1 percent is added to storage to obtain ST (to avoid zero values in the regression equations).

4. Forest cover (FOR) is expressed as a percentage of the drainage area shown on USGS maps, determined by the grid method, or is data from the Soil Conservation Service. A constant of 1 percent is added to forest cover to obtain FOR (to avoid zero values in the regression equations).

5. The 25-year precipitation index (I25) is computed by subtracting 4.2 from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall, expressed in inches (Huff and Angel, 1992). The maximum 25-year, 24-hour rainfall has a recurrence interval of 25 years. Precipitation indices were computed for recurrence intervals of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-years. The 25-year recurrence interval subsequently proved to be the best precipitation index for predicting the selected recurrence-interval flood discharges. The 25-year, 24-hour rainfall amounts for the 9 climatic sections in Wisconsin (Huff and Angel, 1992) are shown in figure 1. Values of I25 were determined at each streamflow-gaging station.


Figure

Figure 1. 25-year, 24-hour rainfall in Wisconsin by climatic section (rainfall data from Huff and Angel, 1992).


6. Mean annual snowfall (SN) for 1961 through 1990, in inches, is determined from climate data processed by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University (Daly and others, 2000) and is shown in figure 2. SN is interpolated from the contours for the location of the streamflow-gaging station.


Figure

Figure 2. Mean annual snowfall from 1961 through 1990, in inches, in Wisconsin (snowfall data from Daly and others, 2000). This map contains data from the Climate Source, and is used herein by permission. Copyright© 2000 The Climate Source, www.climatesource.com. All rights reserved.


7. Soil permeability (SP), in inches per hour, is based on the least-permeable soil horizon in the soil column. The median rate is used for each range of soil permeability. Ranges of soil permeability were obtained from a soils table published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service (1964) and overlaid on a soils map of Wisconsin (Hole and others, 1968). The weighted-average soil permeability (SP) is shown on plate 2. A grid is printed on the back of plate 2 to facilitate estimating the percent of the basin in each soil-permeability range.


Plate 2. Map of Wisconsin showing soil permeability (2,094 Kb PDF).


Flood-Frequency Areas in Wisconsin

The state was divided into five flood-frequency areas by Conger (1981). Several boundaries between areas were adjusted in north-central Wisconsin on the basis of physical characteristics (Krug and others, 1992) and residuals from the regression equations when applied to particular sites (fig. 3 and pl. 1).


Figure

Figure 3. Flood-frequency areas in Wisconsin.


The five-area arrangement of the state is useful in reducing the errors in the regression equations. Different basin characteristics are significant in estimating the flood frequency in the various areas. For example, soil permeability is not a significant variable in flood-frequency equations for the southern part of the state (areas 1 and 5), but it is significant in the central and northern parts of the state (areas 2, 3 and 4). Note that the driftless area is contained almost entirely in area 1 (plate 1 and fig. 3).

Flood-Frequency Equations and Accuracy Evaluation

For this study, a combination of OLS and GLS regressions was used to determine the best-fit regression equations for each flood-frequency area (fig. 3). A stepwise OLS procedure was used as a screening tool to determine the suite of variables that best predicted the T-year flood for each area. The stepwise procedure selects a subset of variables from a group of candidate basin characteristics (as described in the previous section) beginning with the variable that explains the most variability in the dependent variable, and continues with each successive variable that explains the most remaining variability given the effects of the variables already chosen. A variable was selected when its coefficient was determined to be significantly different from zero at the 5-percent level (significance level less than 0.05).

To facilitate comparison of various regressions, the standard error of estimate was used (a measure of the error in the use of regression equations to predict T-year floods at sites used in the regression analysis). Because the regression equations were computed using a logarithmic transformation of the dependent and independent variables, the standard error in log space was used to determine confidence intervals for predictions of the logarithm of a particular T-year discharge. The true value of the log of the T-year flood will be within plus or minus one standard error of the regression estimate at about two-thirds of the sites. Because of the nonlinear nature of the logarithmic transformation, the resulting confidence intervals transformed to actual discharges are not symmetrical. For comparison purposes, an "equivalent" standard error as a percent of predicted discharge was computed as follows:

ESE equals the quantity of 10 to the SE power minus 10 to the negative SE power, all divded by 2.(2)

where

ESE is the equivalent standard error in percent of predicted discharge, and

SE is the standard error of the logarithm ofdischarge.

Note that the ESE essentially results in a confidence interval that has the same width as the true confidence interval for two-thirds of the predicted values; however, the upper and lower bounds computed with the ESE will not be correct because of the asymmetry of the confidence intervals.

For most areas, the stepwise procedure results in a slightly different set of independent variables for each of the T-year floods (2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-year). To maintain consistency, a common set of variables was chosen to predict each of the T-year floods in a particular area; in general, the set of variables explaining the most variability of the higher recurrence interval floods (50- and 100-year) was chosen. This set of variables was then used to estimate the regressions using the GLS procedure. Selecting a set of variables that deviates from the stepwise results will produce a somewhat diminished accuracy of prediction for the regression. To illustrate the differences in model accuracy, the estimated standard errors in log space (approximated by the model error) and an equivalent standard error of estimate in percent were determined for three separate regressions: (1) the best set of variables using OLS stepwise estimation, (2) a common set of variables using OLS regression; and (3) a common set of variables using GLS regression (table 1). For the most part, the increase in standard error for the common set of variables is relatively small, and in some cases is compensated for by the improvements afforded by the GLS procedure.

Table 1. Comparison of regression results for ordinary least squares (OLS) and generalized least squares (GLS)

[SE, standard error of estimate in log units; ESE, equivalent standard error of estimate in percent; Best, results using stepwise OLS regression; Common, results using OLS and a common set of independent variables; Qn, the n-year recurrence interval flood. Flood frequency areas are shown in figure 3.]

FlooddischargeOLS SEGLS SEOLS ESEGLS ESE
BestCommonCommonBestCommonCommon
Area 1
Q20.1867 0.1867 0.1803 44 44 43
Q5.1692 .1787 .1709 40 42 40
Q10.1591 .1746 .1631 37 41 38
Q25.1852 .1852 .1691 44 44 40
Q50 .1690 .1963 .1764 40 47 42
Q100 .1777 .2090 .1855 42 50 44
Area 2
Q2 .1123 .1182 .1091 26 28 25
Q5 .1117 .1207 .1086 26 28 25
Q10 .1157 .1253 .1086 27 29 25
Q25 .1233 .1327 .1100 29 31 26
Q50 .1300 .1387 .1118 30 32 26
Q100 .1380 .1458 .1153 32 34 27
Area 3
Q2 .1569 .1626 .1591 37 38 37
Q5 .1489 .1518 .1470 35 36 34
Q10 .1495 .1515 .1449 35 36 34
Q25 .1522 .1525 .1439 36 36 34
Q50 .1547 .1547 .1446 36 36 34
Q100 .1580 .1581 .1466 37 37 34
Area 4
Q2 .1305 .1305 .1233 31 31 29
Q5 .1177 .1238 .1131 27 29 26
Q10 .1153 .1213 .1063 27 28 25
Q25 .1197 .1197 .0995 28 28 23
Q50 .1203 .1203 .0964 28 28 22
Q100 .1226 .1226 .0954 29 29 22
Area 5
Q2 .1069 .1248 .1179 25 29 27
Q5 .1113 .1214 .1127 26 28 26
Q10 .1306 .1306 .1196 31 31 28
Q25 .1494 .1494 .1349 35 35 32
Q50 .1655 .1655 .1490 39 39 35
Q100 .1821 .1821 .1637 43 43 39

The flood-frequency equations developed for streams in Wisconsin, along with the standard error of estimate in log space and equivalent standard error of estimate in percent are presented in table 2. The equivalent standard error of estimate is shown for comparison with similar data published in previous reports (Conger, 1971 and 1981; Krug and others, 1992); however, it is computed differently in this study and the comparison is not exact. The standard error of estimate for the regression equations for the 100-year flood in the Conger (1971) report ranged from 37 to 41 percent. The comparable range of standard error of prediction was 35 to 40 percent in the Conger (1981) report. The range of standard error of prediction for the 100-year flood was 22 to 33 percent in the Krug and others (1992) report. The range of standard error of prediction for the 100-year flood in table 3 is 22 to 44 percent.

Table 2. Flood-frequency equations for streams in Wisconsin

[A, contributing drainage area in square miles; S, main-channel slope in feet per mile; I25­, 25-year, 24-hour precipitation intensity, in inches minus 4.2; ST, storage, in percent of basin area plus 1.0; SP, soil permeability of the least-permeable soil horizon in inches per hour; SN, mean annual snowfall for 1961 through 1990 in inches; FOR, forest cover in percent of basin area plus 1; Qn, peak flood discharge in cubic feet per second, with an n-year recurrence interval; SE, standard error of estimate of regression, in log units; ESE, equivalent standard error of estimate, in percent. Flood frequency areas are shown in figure 3.]

Best-fit equationSEESEEq. no.
Area 1 (39 stations)
Q2=99.9 A0.652FOR-0.254I257.52 0.1803 43 1-1
Q5=190.0 A0.634FOR-0.260I258.45 .1709 40 1-2
Q10=35.0 A0.857S0.463FOR-0.302I256.92 .1631 38 1-3
Q25=38.1 A0.876S 0.518FOR -0.308I257.16 .1691 40 1-4
Q50=41.4 A0.884S0.545FOR -0.310I257.36 .1764 42 1-5
Q100=44.2 A0.893S0.571FOR -0.312I257.56 .1855 44 1-6
Area 2 (36 stations)
Q2=13.0 A0.884SP-0.630S0.382 .1091 25 2-1
Q5=15.4 A0.900SP-0.682S0.486 .1086 25 2-2
Q10=16.3 A0.910SP-0.710S0.541 .1086 25 2-3
Q25=17.3 A0.922SP-0.740S0.600 .1100 26 2-4
Q50=17.9 A0.929SP-0.758S0.636 .1118 26 2-5
Q100=18.3 A0.936SP-0.775S0.669 .1153 27 2-6
Area 3 (57 stations)
Q2=36.5 A0.832SP-0.614ST-0.143I250.124 .1591 37 3-1
Q5=61.6 A0.827SP-0.683ST-0.169I250.133 .1470 34 3-2
Q10=80.6 A0.825SP-0.713ST-0.186I250.135 .1449 34 3-3
Q25=107.0 A0.821SP-0.743ST-0.204I250.136 .1439 34 3-4
Q50=127.0 A0.819SP-0.761ST-0.215I250.136 .1446 34 3-5
Q100=149.0 A0.818SP-0.775ST-0.227I250.136 .1466 34 3-6
Area 4 (40 stations)
Q2=2.69 A0.864ST-0.296S0.279SP-0.250SN0.490 .1233 29 4-1
Q5=6.76 A0.858ST-0.286S0.303SP-0.259SN0.370 .1131 26 4-2
Q10=9.74 A0.856ST-0.286S0.321SP-0.255SN0.332 .1063 25 4-3
Q25=13.7 A0.856ST-0.290S0.342SP-0.246SN0.299 .0995 23 4-4
Q50=16.6 A0.857ST-0.293S0.357SP-0.238SN0.281 .0964 22 4-5
Q100=19.4 A0.857ST-0.296S0.371SP-0.229SN0.269 .0954 22 4-6
Area 5 (28 stations)
Q2=9.58 A0.981ST-0.293S0.416 .1179 27 5-1
Q5=15.1 A0.912ST-0.358S0.438 .1127 26 5-2
Q10=18.9 A0.913ST-0.385S0.447 .1196 28 5-3
Q25=23.6 A0.915ST-0.408S0.457 .1349 32 5-4
Q50=27.0 A0.916ST-0.420S0.463 .1490 35 5-5
Q100=30.6 A0.916ST-0.430S0.467 .1637 39 5-6

The biggest discrepancy between the equivalent standard errors in the previous report and this report occur for the most part in areas 1 and 5 (fig. 3), which constitute a large portion of the driftless area. Recent evidence indicates that floods in the driftless area of the state have been decreasing over time (Gebert and Krug, 1996). The issue of stationarity in the record is beyond the scope of this study; however, it is a likely topic to be considered in the next revision of the regression equations.

The regression equations are valid for streams without significant regulation. For the purposed of this report, a dam on a stream or river does not constitute regulation unless the dam is used to control the flow during a flood.

The regression equations and the associated accuracy are considered valid only within the area for which they were developed and only for basin-characteristic values that are within the range used to calculate the regression equations. Flood estimates can be made using basin characteristics outside the range of values from which the equations were derived, but it is not possible to estimate the error in those values. The ranges of the basin characteristics of the streamflow-gaging stations used in the regression analysis are summarized in table 3.

Table 3. Ranges of basin characteristics used in regression analysis

[mi2, square miles; ft/mi, feet per mile; in., inches; in/hr, inches per hour. Flood-frequency areas are shown in figure 3.]

Basin characteristicMinimumMedianMaximum
Area 1 (39 stations)
Drainage area (mi2) 0.28 25.0 2,120
Main-channel slope (ft/mi) 2.27 27.3 270
Forested area (percent) .00 26.6 56.9
25-year, 24-hour precipitation (in.) 5.18 5.28 5.29
Area 2 (36 stations)
Drainage area (mi2) .56 27.4 1,760
Soil permeability (in/hr) .20 .91 2.88
Main-channel slope (ft/mi) 3.65 15.56 96
Area 3 (57 stations)
Drainage area (mi2) 1.00 22 2,240
Soil permeability (in/hr) .12 1.81 8.46
Storage (percent) .00 15.5 39.7
25-year, 24-hour precipitation (in.) 4.24 4.38 5.29
Area 4 (40 stations)
Drainage area (mi2) .66 35.0 696
Storage (percent) .00 9.40 52.4
Main-channel slope (ft/mi) 1.08 11.6 204
Soil permeability (in/hr) .12 .82 4.68
Mean annual snowfall (in.) 34.4 48.3 172
Area 5 (28 stations)
Drainage area (mi2) 1.32 18.9 3,340
Storage (percent) .00 1.65 15.4
Main-channel slope (ft/mi) .74 12.85 74.2

Application of Estimation Techniques

The estimation techniques in this report can be applied to four types of rural sites. The first case is where the site is at a streamflow-gaging station; for this case, a weighted estimate is calculated based on the gaging record and the appropriate regression equation. The second case is where the site is near a streamflow-gaging station; for this case, the discharge from the appropriate regression equation is adjusted using information from the station. The third case is where there is no streamflow-gaging station on the stream; for this case, the appropriate regression equation is applied directly. The fourth case is where the site is on a regulated stream; for this case, the discharge is estimated based on drainage area and the appropriate relation for the particular regulated stream (figs. 4-7). A detailed description for applying each technique is given in the examples that follow. To estimate flood frequencies for urban streams, the reader is referred to Conger (1986).


Figure

Figure 4. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequencies along the main stem of the Menominee River, Wisconsin and Michigan.



Figure

Figure 5. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequencies along the main stem of the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin.



Figure

Figure 6. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequencies along the main stem of the Chippewa River, Wisconsin.



Figure

Figure 7. Relation of discharge to drainage area for selected flood frequencies along the main stem of the Flambeau River, Wisconsin.


Sites at Streamflow-Gaging Stations

Flood-frequency characteristics of sites at streamflow-gaging stations can be estimated from the station streamflow record and by the regression equations. The two methods can be considered independent when a large number of sites were used to develop the regression equations. This is because the influence of a given station on determining the regression equations is roughly inversely proportional to the number of stations used to determine the equations. When independent flood-frequency estimates are available, the Interagency Committee Advisory Committee on Water Data (1982, Appendix 8) recommends that the weighted average of the estimates be used as the best estimate of the flow frequency. If the estimates are weighted in inverse proportion to their variances, the variance of the weighted average will be less than the variance of either of the independent estimates. Flood-frequency characteristics estimated from flood-peak data are listed in Appendix table A-1.

Example 1: Determine the 100-year flood discharge for the Jump River at Sheldon (station number 05362000).

1. Locate the data in Appendix table A-1 by station number (05362000).

2. The 100-year flood discharge for Jump River is Q100 = 25,000 ft3/s.

The flood- frequency estimates presented in this report were based on the common logarithms of discharge. Therefore the weighting should be done with the logarithms of the flood-frequency estimates, and the best estimate is the antilogarithm of the weighted average. The flood-frequency estimates in Appendix tables A-1 and A-2 are essentially independent and, therefore, could be combined by this procedure to get an improved estimate at each site.

The appropriate equation (Interagency Committee Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1982) is

z equals the quantity of x multiplied by V sub y plus y multiplied by V sub x, all divided by the quantity of V sub x plus V sub y. (3)

where

x and y are two independent estimates of aflood-frequency characteristic,

Vx and Vy are their respective variances, and

z is the weighted estimate of the flood-frequency characteristic.

In the example of the Jump River at Sheldon,

x= log (25,000)= 4.398 from table A-1

Vx= (0.0435)2= 0.00189 from table A-1

y= log(41,100)= 4.614 from table A-2

Vy= (0.1153)2= 0.0133 from table 2, eq. 2-6.

The log of Q sub 100 equals the quantity of 4.398 multiplied by 0.0133 plus 4.614 multiplied by 0.00189, all divided by the quantity of 0.0133 plus 0.00189. (4)

The log of Q sub 100 equals the quantity of 0.0585 plus 0.00872, all divided by 0.0152, which equals 4.422. (5)

Q sub 100 equals 26,400 cubic feet per second. (6)

Sites on Streams near Streamflow-Gaging Stations

Flood-frequency characteristics at sites near a streamflow-gaging station on the same stream are determined using a combination of the station's flood frequency characteristics and the characteristics determined by the regression equations. The procedure is applicable for sites that have a drainage area between 50 and 150 percent of the drainage area of the station. The suitability of the flood-frequency characteristics should be determined by comparing them with flood-frequency characteristics at the station. The following procedure was used by Curtis (1987) for streams in Illinois based on work by Sauer (1974). The procedure is as follows:

First, the ratio r′ is defined by

r prime is equal to the quantity of Q sub g divided by Q hat sub g minus the quantity of, open parenthesis, the quantity of, open absolute value of A sub g minus A sub u, close absolute vale, all divided by the quantity of  0.5 multiplied by A sub g, close parenthesis, multiplied by the quantity of, open parenthesis, Q sub g divided by Q hat sub g, then minus one, close parenthesis. (7)

where

r′ is the adjustment ratio,

Qg is a flood-frequency characteristic determined at the station,

Q hat sub g is a flood-frequency characteristic determined for the station by the appropriate multiple-regressionequation (table 2),

Ag is drainage area of the gaged site, and

Au is drainage area of the ungaged site.

The adjusted flood-frequency characteristic for the ungaged site (Qu) is computed by the equation

Q sub u equals r prime multiplied by Q hat sub u. (8)

where

Q hat sub u is a flood-frequency characteristic determined for the ungaged site by theappropriate multiple-regression equation.

If the difference in drainage area between the ungaged site and the gaged site is more than 50 percent, equations 7 and 8 should not be used. In this case, the appropriate multiple-regression equation from table 2 should be used without adjustment but should be compared to the flood-frequency characteristic of the station on the stream for suitability. If the drainage area crosses the boundary of two flood-frequency areas, compute the flood frequency using equations from both areas. Compute the final flood-frequency estimates as the weighted average of the two estimates weighted by the proportion of drainage area in each of the flood-frequency areas.

Example 2: Determine the 100-year flood of Black Earth Creek at U.S. Highway 14, which is 2 miles downstream from the station Black Earth Creek at Black Earth (05406500).

First, equation 1-6 from table 2 is used to determine the 100-year flood estimate at the gaged site:

Q sub 100 equals 44.2, multiplied by A raised to the 0.893 power multiplied by S raised to the 0.571 power, multiplied by FOR raised to the negative 0.312 power, multiplied by I sub 25 raised to the 7.56 power. (1-6)

The drainage-basin characteristics at the gaged site are given in Appendix table A-2:

A (contributing drainage area) = 42.8 mi2,

S (main channel slope) = 9.42 ft/mi,

FOR (forest cover in percent of basin area plus 1) = 21.8 + 1 = 22.8, and

I25 (25-year, 24-hour precipitation index) = 5.18 – 4.2 = 0.98 inches.

Substituting into equation 1-6,

Q hat sub u equals 44.2 multiplied by 42.8 raised to the 0.893 power, multiplied by 9.42 raised to the 0.571 power, multiplied by 22.8 raised to the negative 0.312 power, multiplied by 0.98 raised to the 7.56 power, which equals 1, 470 cubic feet per second. (9)

Q hat sub u at the Black Earth Creek at U.S. Highway 14 can be determined at the ungaged site by use of the same eq. 1-6 and the procedure that was used to determine Q hat sub gat the station, as follows:

Q sub 100 equals 44.2, multiplied by A raised to the 0.893 power multiplied by S raised to the 0.571 power, multiplied by FOR raised to the negative 0.312 power, multiplied by I sub 25 raised to the 7.56 power. (1-6, table 2)

The drainage-basin characteristics at this site were determined to be:

A= 45.0 mi2 (2.8 mi2 non-contributing area),

S= 8.81 ft/mi,

FOR= 21.9 + 1 = 22.9, and

I25= 5.18 – 4.2 = 0.98.

Substituting into equation 1-6,

Q hat sub u equals 44.2 multiplied by 45.0 raised to the 0.893 power, multiplied by 8.81 raised to the 0.571 power, multiplied by 22.9 raised to the negative 0.312 power, multiplied by 0.98 raised to the 7.56  power, which equals 1, 480 cubic feet per second. (10)

From Appendix table A-2, the 100-year flood at the gaging station (Qg) is 1,650 ft3/s. Next, Equation 7 is used to determine the adjustment factor (r′):

r prime is equal to the quantity of Q sub g divided by Q hat sub g minus the quantity of, open parenthesis, the quantity of, open absolute value of A sub g minus A sub u, close absolute vale, all divided by the quantity of  0.5 multiplied by A sub g, close parenthesis, multiplied by the quantity of, open parenthesis, Q sub g divided by Q hat sub g, then minus one, close parenthesis. (7)

r prime equals the quantity of 1,650 divided by 1,470, minus the quantity of, open parenthesis, the absolute value of 42.8 minus 47.8, then divided by the quantity of 0.5 multiplied by 42.8, close parenthesis, multiplied by the quantity of, open parenthesis, 1,650 divided by 1,480, minus 1, close parenthesis. This equals 1.094. (11)

Finally, Equation 8 is used to compute the adjusted discharge at the ungaged site, thus

Q sub u equals r prime multiplied by Q hat sub u, which is equal to 1.094 multiplied by 1,480, which equals 1,620 cubic feet per second. (12)

If the drainage area crosses the boundary of two flood-frequency areas, compute the flood frequency using equations from both areas. Compute the final flood-frequency estimates as the weighted average of the two estimates weighted by the proportion of drainage area in each of the flood-frequency areas.

Sites on Streams Without Streamflow-Gaging Stations

Flood-frequency characteristics at sites on ungaged streams are calculated using equations 1-1 through 5-6 from table 2.

Example 3: Determine the 100-year discharge for Tappen Coulee at Blair. This site is in area 1; therefore, use equation 1-6 from table 2:

Q sub 100 equals 44.2, multiplied by A to the 0.893 power multiplied by S to the 0.571 power, multiplied by FOR to the negative 0.312 power, multiplied by I sub 25 to the 7.56 power. (1-6)

1. The drainage area A was determined to be 4.48 mi2 from Henrich and Daniel (1983).

2. The main channel slope (S) was computed from U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps as follows:

(a) The river or coulee length was measured from the site to the basin divide. For forked streams, the fork with the larger drainage area is followed.

(b) The elevations at points that are 10 and 85 percent of the total stream length from the site are then determined.

(c) Next, the difference in elevation between the sites is determined and is divided by the distance, in miles, between the points. By use of the appropriate quadrangle maps (Blair, 1968, 1:24,000; Hegg, 1969, 1:24,000), the total length of the stream for this site was determined to be 5.20 mi. The elevation at the 10-percent point is 847.6 ft and at the 85-percent point is 963.0 ft. The main channel slope is

S equals the quantity 963.0 minus 847.6, then divided by 5.20, which equals 29.6 feet per mile. (13)

3. The percent forest cover was determined to be 45.8 percent based on land use/land coverage in the WISCLAN database (Reese and others, 2002) and a digitized drainage-basin outline after Henrich and Daniel (1983).

4. The precipitation intensity index (I25) was determined by locating the site in figure 1 and determining the 25-year, 24-hour precipitation intensity, then subtracting 4.2. The 25-year precipitation intensity for climatic section 4 is 5.28; therefore I25 is 1.08.

5. Substituting these values into equation 1-6:

Q sub 100 equals 44.2 multiplied by 4.48 raised to the 0.893 power, multiplied by 29.6 raised to the 0.571 power, multiplied by 46.8 raised to the negative 0.312 power, multiplied by 1.08 raised to the 7.56 power, which equals 629. (14)

If the drainage area crosses the boundary of two flood-frequency areas, compute the flood frequency using equations from both areas. Compute the final flood-frequency estimates as the weighted average of the two estimates weighted by the proportion of drainage area in each of the flood-frequency areas.

Sites on Regulated Streams

Flood-frequency characteristics at ungaged sites on regulated streams are estimated using the flood-frequency characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations on the regulated streams and adjusting the characteristics according to the relation of drainage area and discharge. Graphs showing the peak discharge of floods plotted at selected recurrence intervals against drainage area are presented in figures 4-7 for the following major regulated streams in Wisconsin:

a. Menominee River between Wisconsin and Michigan (fig. 4),

b. Wisconsin River from the mouth to Rainbow Reservoir near Lake Tomahawk (fig. 5),

c. Chippewa River from the mouth to Lake Chippewa in Sawyer County (fig. 6), and

d. Flambeau River from its mouth to Flambeau Flowage northeast of Park Falls (fig. 7).

Storage reservoirs in these basins can significantly change the flood-frequency characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations. Flood-frequency analyses were performed for stations along the main stems for the period of record beginning with the completion of the last large storage reservoir in each basin for the Menominee, Chippewa, and Flambeau Rivers. These analyses represent flood-frequency characteristics in 2000. Completion dates for the last large storage reservoir for each basin follow: 1941 for the Menominee River; 1926 for the Flambeau River; and 1923 for the Chippewa River. For the Wisconsin River, flood peaks prior to 1976 were simulated using a model of the river system (Krug and House, 1980). Observed flood peaks were used after 1976.

Summary and Conclusions

Equations, tables, and graphs presented in this report provide a means for estimating flood-frequency characteristics for rural streams in Wisconsin. Flood-frequency characteristics were determined at 104 crest-stage stations, at 33 discontinued crest-stage stations, at 108 continuous streamflow-gaging stations, and at 67 discontinued streamflow-gaging stations using the log-Pearson Type III frequency distribution. The flood-frequency characteristics at 96 crest-gage stations, 29 discontinued crest-gage stations, 48 streamflow-gaging stations, and 27 discontinued streamflow-gaging stations, and their drainage-basin characteristics, were used in a multiple-regression analysis to derive equations for estimating flood-frequency characteristics. The generalized least-square procedure was used in the multiple-regression analyses. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics.

For the 100-year flood discharge, the standard errors of prediction in three of the five areas were relatively unchanged from those reported in Krug and others (1992). The most notable discrepancies were in areas 1 and 5 (southwestern and south-central Wisconsin) where the standard error of estimate increased from 26 and 22 percent to 44 and 39 percent, respectively, for the 100-year floods. This discrepancy may be due to nonstationarity in the discharge record coupled with the use of relatively recent snowfall and precipitation data. The standard error of estimate for the 100-year flood equation ranged statewide from 22 percent for streams in the eastern area to 44 percent for streams in the southwestern area. Drainage area, channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover are the most significant drainage-basin characteristics for estimating flood-frequency characteristics.

Graphical relations of flood-frequency characteristics and drainage area are presented for the regulated Menominee, Flambeau, Chippewa, and Wisconsin Rivers. The relations were developed by use of data at stations for periods after the last large storage reservoir was constructed in each basin. For the Wisconsin River, the source of simulated flood discharges through 1976 was a report by Krug and House (1980). Observed flood discharges were used after 1976.

References Cited

Conger, D.H., 1971, Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Wisconsin: Madison, Wis., U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 200 p.

___1981, Techniques for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin streams: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82–1214, 115 p.

___1986, Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin urban streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 86–4005, 18 p.

Curtis, G.W., 1987, Technique for estimating flood-peak discharges and frequencies on rural streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87–4207, 79 p.

Daly, C., Gibson, W., and Taylor, G., 2000, United States mean monthly and annual snowfall: Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University.

Ericson, D.W., 1961, Floods in Wisconsin, magnitude and frequency: Madison, Wis., U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 109 p.

Gebert, W.A., and Krug, W.R., 1996, Streamflow trends in Wisconsin's driftless area: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 32, no. 4, p. 733–744.

Henrich, E.W., and Daniel, D.N., 1983, Drainage area data for Wisconsin streams: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 83–933, 322 p.

Hole, F.D., Beatty, M.T., Lee, G.B., and Klingelhoets, A.J., 1968, Soil map of Wisconsin: Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, scale 1:250,000, 11 sheets.

Huff, F.A., and Angel, J.R., 1992, Rainfall frequency atlas of the midwest: Illinois State Water Survey Bulletin 71.

Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1982, Guidelines for determining flood flow frequency: Bulletin 17B of the Hydrology Subcommittee, U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Water Data Coordination, Reston, Va.

Krug, W.R., Conger, D.H., and Gebert, W.A., 1992, Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91–4128, 185 p.

Krug, W.R., and House, L.B., l980, Streamflow model of Wisconsin River for estimating flood frequency and volume: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Open-File Report 80–1103, 44 p.

Patterson, J.L., and Gamble, C.R., 1968, Magnitude and frequency of floods in the United States, part 5, Hudson Bay and Upper Mississippi River basins: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1678, 546 p.

Reese, H.M., Lillesand, T.M., Nagel, D.E., Stewart, J.S., Goldmann, R.A., Simmons, T.E., Chipman, J.W., and Tessar, P.A., 2002, Statewide land cover derived from multiseasonal Landsat TM data—A retrospective of the WISCLAND project: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 82, no. 2–3, p. 224–237.

Sauer, V.B., 1974, Flood characteristics of Oklahoma streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 52–73, 301 p.

Stedinger, J.R., and Tasker, G.D., 1985, Regional hydrologic analysis 1—Ordinary, weighted and generalized least squares compared: Water Resources Research, v. 21, no. 9, p. 1421–1432.

Tasker, G.D., Eychaner, J.H., and Stedinger, J.R., 1986, Application of generalized least squares in regional hydrologic regression analysis, in Subitzky, Seymour, ed., Selected papers in the hydrologic sciences 1986: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2310, p. 107–115.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1964, Engineering test data and interpretations for major soils of Wisconsin: table 11, p. 3–43.

Wiitala, S.W., 1965, Magnitude and frequency of floods in the United States, part 4, St. Lawrence River basin: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1677, 357 p.


Appendixes

Table A-1. Flood discharges at selected recurrence intervals and WRC skew for streamflow-gaging stations in the Wisconsin flood-frequency network

[WRC skew, skewness as defined in Bulletin 17B (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1981); recurrence intervals in years; discharge in cubic feet per second; SE100, standard error of 100-year discharge, in log units; C, crest-stage gage; G, continuous-record gage]

StationnumberStation nameWRC skewDischarge for indicated recurrence intervalTypePeriod of record
25102550100SE100
Unregulated Stations
04024400Stoney Brook near Superior, Wis. -0.457 182 312 402 516 599 681 0.07219C1959–2000
04024430Nemadji River near South Superior, Wis. -.093 5,250 7,510 9,020 10,900 12,400 13,800 .06607G1974–2000
04025200Pearson Creek near Maple, Wis. .415 350 609 834 1,190 1,510 1,890 .10020C1957–2000
04025500Bois Brule River at Brule, Wis. .071 607 864 1,040 1,280 1,460 1,640 .04830G1943–2000
04026200Sand River tributary near Red Cliff, Wis. .384 112 198 273 391 498 624 .10347C1959–2000
04026300Sioux River near Washburn, Wis. .477 467 780 1,050 1,470 1,840 2,280 .09817C1959–2000
04026400Spillerberg Creek near Cayuga, Wis. -.002 77 110 133 163 186 209 .07335C1958–1958
04026450Bad River near Mellen, Wis. .091 915 1,340 1,650 2,050 2,370 2,700 .07463C1971–2000
04026700Trout Brook tributary near Marengo, Wis. -.186 124 203 260 336 394 455 .09759C1960–1981
04027000Bad River near Odanah, Wis. .317 7390 10,800 13,300 16,800 19,700 22,700 .05616G1915–2000
04027200Pearl Creek at Grandview, Wis. .596 179 295 395 555 701 874 .10298C1960–2000
04027500White River near Ashland, Wis. -.113 2,640 3,970 4,890 6,090 7,000 7,920 .05505G1949–2000
04028000Montreal River at Ironwood, Mich. .239 1,080 1,650 2,090 2,700 3,200 3,750 .13014G1918–1962
04029000West Branch Montreal River at Gile, Wis. -.684 924 1,200 1,350 1,500 1,600 1,690 .06013G1918–1947
04029700Boomer Creek near Saxon, Wis. -.260 131 213 272 348 405 464 .09667C1958–1981
04029990Montreal River at Saxon Falls near Saxon, Wis. -.172 3,200 4,720 5,740 7,040 8,000 8,960 .05343G1939–2000
04059900Allen Creek tributary near Alvin, Wis. .200 13 20 26 34 40 47 .07502C1960–2000
04061000Brule River near Florence, Wis. .149 1,447 2,052 2,479 3,044 3,485 3,942 .05185G1944–2000
04063640North Branch Pine River at Windsor Dam near Alvin, Wis. -.118 73 95 109 126 139 150 .04758C1967–2000
04063688South Branch Popple River near Newald, Wis. -.212 49 58 63 69 73 77 .03289C1970–2000
04063700Popple River near Fence, Wis. .105 635 904 1,090 1,340 1,530 1,730 .06027G1964–2000
04063800Woods Creek near Fence, Wis. .570 197 277 339 427 501 582 .07562C1958–2000
04064500Pine River below Pine River Powerplant near Florence, Wis. -.028 2,000 2,730 3,200 3,800 4,250 4,690 .04076G1924–2000
04064800Little Popple River near Aurora, Wis. -.285 355 467 534 612 666 717 .05022C1970–2000
04066300Cole Creek near Dunbar, Wis. .145 21 29 34 41 47 53 .07286C1960–2000
04066500Pike River at Amberg, Wis. .139 1,010 1,400 1,660 2,010 2,270 2,540 .04494G1914–2000
04066700McCall Creek at Wausaukee, Wis. -.466 13 27 37 52 63 74 .12759C1959–1980
04066800Menominee River at Koss, Mich. -.418 13,200 18,400 21,500 25,100 27,500 29,800 .03473G1908–2000
04067760Peshtigo River near Cavour, Wis. -.143 778 1,090 1,300 1,560 1,740 1,930 .05755C1970–2000
04067800Armstrong Creek near Armstrong Creek, Wis. .488 103 148 182 231 271 315 .07602C1958–1992
04068000Peshtigo River at High Falls near Crivitz, Wis. -.083 2,000 2,600 2,980 3,440 3,770 4,080 .03818G1913–1956
04069500Peshtigo River at Peshtigo, Wis. .013 4,300 5,680 6,580 7,690 8,510 9,330 .04118G1954–2000
04069700North Branch Oconto River near Wabeno, Wis. .226 139 230 303 410 502 604 .09931C1970–2000
04071000Oconto River near Gillett, Wis. -.038 2,430 3,440 4,120 4,990 5,650 6,310 .03600G1907–2000
04071700North Branch Little River near Coleman, Wis. -.538 240 373 457 557 625 690 .05680C1958–2000
04071800Pensaukee River near Pulaski, Wis. -.194 802 1,200 1,460 1,800 2,050 2,300 .05923C1961–2000
04071858Pensaukee River near Pensaukee, Wis. -.359 1,600 2,710 3,490 4,510 5,270 6,030 .09460G1973–1996
04072150Duck Creek near Howard, Wis. -.367 1,410 2,690 3,680 5,030 61,00 7,190 .16461G1989–2000
04073400Bird Creek at Wautoma, Wis. -.008 81 113 135 162 183 204 .05106C1959–2000
04073462White Creek at Spring Grove Road near Green Lake, Wis. .122 124 243 349 517 669 846 .21313G1982-2000
040734644Silver Creek at South Koro Road near Ripon, Wis. .118 206 310 385 489 571 658 .13481G1987–1995
04073468Green Lake inlet at County Highway A near Green Lake, Wis. .193 223 335 418 533 626 725 .11770G1987-2000
04073500Fox River at Berlin, Wis. –.217 3,380 4,590 5,340 6,250 6,900 7,520 .02769G1898-2000
04074300Mud Creek near Nashville, Wis. –.057 62 77 86 97 104 111 .04241C1970-2000
04074700Hunting River near Elcho, Wis. .315 80 112 135 167 193 220 .06501C1958–2000
04074850Lily River near Lily, Wis. -.268 81 127 158 198 228 257 .07377C1970–2000
04074950Wolf River at Langlade, Wis. -.315 1,480 1,850 2,050 2,290 2,450 2,590 .03439G1968–2000
04075200Evergreen Creek near Langlade, Wis. .282 43 55 62 72 80 87 .04365G1959–1997
04075500Wolf River above West Branch Wolf River near Keshena, Wis. .319 1,740 2,120 2,360 2,670 2,890 3,120 .03784G1928–1962
04077400Wolf River near Shawano, Wis. .263 2,500 3,190 3,650 4,240 4,680 5,130 .02900G1908–2000
0407809265Middle Branch Embarrass River near Wittenberg, Wis. -.027 456 640 764 922 1,040 1,160 .10083G1990–2000
04078500Embarrass River near Embarrass, Wis. -.038 2,320 3,440 4,230 5,250 6,030 6,830 .04512G1920–2000
04079000Wolf River at New London, Wis. -.285 6,690 9,370 11,100 13,100 14,500 15,900 .03470G1896–2000
04079700Spaulding Creek near Big Falls, Wis. -.107 55 71 80 92 100 108 .03693C1959–2000
04080000Little Wolf River at Royalton, Wis. -.522 3,200 4,850 5,880 7,100 7,930 8,710 .04555G1914–1984
04081000Waupaca River near Waupaca, Wis. -.518 1060 1,540 1,840 2,180 2,410 2,620 .04226G1917–1985
04081010Waupaca River tributary near Waupaca, Wis. -.489 41 69 88 112 129 145 .09376C1959–1981
04081900Sawyer Creek at Oshkosh, Wis. -.234 554 1,030 1,400 1,920 2,330 2,770 .09267C1961–2000
04083000West Branch Fond du Lac River at Fond du Lac, Wis. -.698 762 1,140 1,360 1,610 1,770 1,910 .08279G1939–1954
04083400East Branch Fond du Lac River tributary near Eden, Wis. -.392 58 96 122 155 179 203 .09570C1961–1963
04083500East Branch Fond du Lac River at Fond du Lac, Wis. -.708 910 1,540 1,950 2,420 2,740 3,030 .10851G1939–1954
04084445Fox River at Appleton, Wis. -.316 12,600 15,100 16,500 18,000 19,000 19,900 .04130G1986–2000
04085030Apple Creek near Kaukauna, Wis. -.721 828 1,260 1,510 1,790 1,980 2,140 .05885C1960–2000
04085100East River tributary at Greenleaf, Wis. -.162 216 379 504 678 818 965 .11004C1958–1980
040851385Fox River at Oil Tank Depot at Green Bay, Wis. .220 15,000 19,700 22,900 27,100 30,200 33,400 .08689G1989–2000
04085200Kewaunee River near Kewaunee, Wis. -.221 2,650 4,450 5,760 7,510 8,860 10,300 .07333G1958–2000
04085281East Twin River at Mishicot, Wis. -.130 1,170 1,990 2,620 3,480 4,160 4,880 .10540G1973–1996
04085300Neshota River tributary near Denmark, Wis. -.101 191 342 460 629 767 915 .09511C1959–2000
04085400Killsnake River near Chilton, Wis. -.667 612 1,040 1,320 1,650 1,880 2,080 .07025C1961–2000
04085427Manitowoc River at Manitowoc, Wis. -.072 2220 3,670 4,760 6,250 7,440 8,700 .09349G1973–2000
04085700Sheboygan River tributary near Plymouth, Wis. -.012 113 182 233 303 360 419 .10278C1959–1980
040857005Otter Creek at Willow Road near Plymouth, Wis. -.559 137 243 315 405 470 532 .15115G1991–2000
04086000Sheboygan River at Sheboygan, Wis. -.551 3,140 4,990 6,170 7,580 8,560 9,480 .05163G1917–2000
04086150Milwaukee River at Kewaskum, Wis. -.049 901 1,450 1,850 2,410 2,840 3,300 .12381G1968–1981
04086200East Branch Milwaukee River at New Fane, Wis. -.137 214 353 455 593 702 815 .13115G1969–1981
04086340North Branch Milwaukee River near Fillmore, Wis. -.266 789 1,380 1,820 2,420 2,880 3,360 .14051G1969–1981
04086360Milwaukee River at Waubeka, Wis. -.317 2,020 3,380 4,340 5,590 6,540 7,490 .11815G1968–1994
04086400Milwaukee River tributary near Fredonia, Wis. -.576 55 105 140 185 218 251 .12300C1962–1980
04086500Cedar Creek near Cedarburg, Wis. -.136 918 1,750 2,420 3,400 4,220 5,110 .07696G1931–2000
04086600Milwaukee River near Cedarburg, Wis. -.217 2,940 3,980 4,630 5,410 5,960 6,490 .06379G1982–2000
04087000Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, Wis. .044 4,730 7,090 8,780 11,000 12,800 14,700 .04427G1915–2000
04087030Menomonee River at Menomonee Falls, Wis. .073 590 888 1,100 1,390 1,620 1,860 .08530G1975–2000
04087050Little Menomonee River near Freistadt, Wis. -.373 168 253 309 376 424 471 .05998C1958–1993
04087088Underwood Creek at Wauwatosa, Wis. .156 952 2,020 3,020 4,700 6,280 8,190 .15610G1975–2000
04087100Honey Creek at Milwaukee, Wis. .048 388 637 828 1,100 1,320 1,550 .07748C1959-2000
04087120Menomonee River at Wauwatosa, Wis. .086 3,680 6,240 8,260 11,200 13,600 16,300 .08698G1962–2000
04087159Kinnickinnic River at S. 11th St. at Milwaukee, Wis. -.059 3,840 5,380 6,410 7,700 8,670 9,640 .07739G1982–2000
04087200Oak Creek near South Milwaukee, Wis. -.241 316 550 725 962 1,150 1,340 .07723C1958–2000
04087204Oak Creek at South Milwaukee, Wis. .157 607 811 948 1,130 1,260 1,400 .05081G1964–2000
04087220Root River near Franklin, Wis. .261 999 1710 2,310 3,210 3,990 4,880 .09745G1960–2000
04087230West Branch Root River Canal tributary near North Cape, Wis. -.713 96 140 165 192 209 225 .05445C1962–1993
04087233Root River Canal near Franklin, Wis. -.362 767 1,020 1,170 1,350 1,460 1,570 .04115G1964–2000
04087240Root River at Racine, Wis. -.090 1,900 2,660 3,150 3,770 4,230 4,690 .05264G1964–2000
04087250Pike Creek near Kenosha, Wis. -.528 92 149 186 230 261 291 .06323C1960–2000
04087257Pike River near Racine, Wis. -.436 944 1,200 1,340 1,500 1,600 1,690 .03787G1972–2000
05332000Namekagon River at Trego, Wis. .121 1,050 1,330 1,510 1,740 1,900 2,060 .06880G1915–1927
05332500Namekagon River near Trego, Wis. .927 1,250 1,810 2,270 2,990 3,620 4,360 .07686G1928–2000
05333100Little Frog Creek near Minong, Wis. -.324 200 357 473 628 747 870 .09064C1961–2000
05334100Sawyer Creek near Shell Lake, Wis. -.144 44 68 84 105 121 138 .08758C1960–1980
05335380Bashaw Brook near Shell Lake, Wis. .155 98 174 236 331 413 505 .10232C1959–1993
05339500St. Croix River near Rush City, Minn. -.426 19,500 30,800 38,300 47,500 54,100 60,400 .06335G1923–1961
05340300Trade River near Fredric, Wis. .447 121 220 309 455 592 757 .11123C1958–2000
05341500Apple River near Somerset, Wis. -.299 1,180 1,650 1,930 2,280 2,520 2,760 .03314G1905–2000
05341700Willow River tributary near New Richmond, Wis. -.776 59 109 142 181 208 233 .10752C1959–1980
05341900Kinnickinnic River tributary at River Falls, Wis. -.381 789 2,060 3,250 5,140 6,800 8,660 .13070C1959–2000
05344500Mississippi River at Prescott, Wis. -.190 62,200 95,600 119,000 14,8000 171,000 193,000 .04694G1929–2000
05346600Little Trimbelle Creek near Bay City, Wis. .034 650 1,260 1,790 2,610 3,330 4,150 .14984C1961–1980
05356200Kenyon Creek near Radisson, Wis. -.340 167 254 312 383 434 484 .08118C1960–1980
05357360Bear River near Powell, Wis. -.233 414 591 706 846 948 1,050 .05852C1970–2000
05357390Weber Creek near Mercer, Wis. -.011 90 145 186 242 287 334 .09569C1970–2000
05358100Smith Creek near Park Falls, Wis. -.217 166 229 269 318 352 386 .06055C1970–2000
05359200South Fork Flambeau River tributary near Park Falls, Wis. -.399 30 56 76 103 124 145 .12375C1960–1980
05359500South Fork Flambeau River near Phillips, Wis. -.378 4,290 5,880 6,850 7,980 8,750 9,480 .04089G1930–1975
05359600PRICE Creek near Phillips, Wis. .456 145 212 264 339 402 470 .07159C1958–2000
05360200Flambeau River tributary at Ladysmith, Wis. –.023 17 27 34 43 51 59 .09680C1960–1980
05361400Hay Creek near Prentice, Wis. -.357 483 764 953 1,190 1,360 1,530 .06369C1961–2000
05361420Douglas Creek near Prentice, Wis. .125 545 798 980 1,220 1,420 1,620 .07195C1970–2000
05361500South Fork Jump River near Ogema, Wis. -.008 4,740 6,390 7,470 8,820 9,820 10,800 .08911G1944–1954
05361600North Fork Jump River near Phillips, Wis. -.532 132 196 236 282 313 342 .06865C1970–2000
05362000Jump River at Sheldon, Wis. -.051 8,130 12,300 15,200 19,000 22,000 25,000 .04348G1916–2000
05364000Yellow River at Cadott, Wis. .270 4,590 7,140 9,120 12,000 14,300 16,900 .06554C1943–2000
05364100Seth Creek near Cadott, Wis. –.344 247 410 524 670 780 889 .07158C1962–2000
05364500Duncan Creek at Bloomer, Wis. .057 879 1,820 2,680 4,050 5,310 6,780 .10483C1945–2000
05365000Duncan Creek at Chippewa Falls, Wis. -.176 1,940 2,770 3,310 3,990 4,480 4,970 .09169G1934–1954
05365700Goggle-Eye Creek near Thorp, Wis. .151 437 896 1,320 2,020 2,660 3,430 .12687C1958–2000
05365707North Fork Eau Claire River near Thorp, Wis. -.014 1,960 3,670 5,100 7,230 9,050 11,100 .16058G1986–2000
05366000Eau Claire River near Augusta, Wis. -.189 5,750 7,110 7,910 8,830 9,460 10,100 .05710G1915–1926
05366500Eau Claire River near Fall Creek, Wis. -.277 8,180 13,500 17,300 22,200 26,000 29,800 .06094C1943–2000
05367030Willow Creek near Eau Claire, Wis. .002 138 205 252 314 362 412 .05979C1958–2000
05367480East Branch Pine Creek tributary near Dallas, Wis. .161 137 226 296 398 484 578 .09158C1960–2000
05367500Red Cedar River near Colfax, Wis. .400 5,800 8,740 11,000 14,300 17,100 20,200 .05985C1914–1990
05367700Lightning Creek at Almena, Wis. -.416 471 781 993 1,260 1,460 1,650 .06759C1958–2000
05368000Hay River at Wheeler, Wis. -.109 3,340 5,630 7,350 9,720 11,600 13,600 .07039G1934–2000
05369000Red Cedar River at Menomonie, Wis. -.031 8,920 13,400 16,500 20,600 23,800 27,000 .04271G1908–2000
05369800Eau Galle River tributary near Hersey, Wis. .210 76 151 219 330 433 555 .16192C1960–1980
05369945Eau Galle River at low-water bridge at Spring Valley, Wis. -.254 2,600 4,210 5,350 6,830 7,950 9,080 .12645G1982–1995
05370000Eau Galle River at Spring Valley, Wis. -.608 1,390 2,290 2,870 3,550 4,030 4,470 .07449G1942–2000
05370500Eau Galle River at Elmwood, Wis. .140 3,760 7,670 11,300 17,100 22,500 28,900 .21708G1942–1953
05370600Arkansaw Creek tributary near Arkansaw, Wis. -.141 181 272 335 416 477 538 .06516C1959–1993
05370900Spring Creek near Durand, Wis. -.304 171 311 416 560 673 789 .08562C1962–2000
05371300By Golly Creek near Nelson, Wis. -.311 10 36 68 129 193 273 .27526C1962–1980
05371800Buffalo River tributary near Osseo, Wis. -.234 67 101 124 153 175 196 .05853C1960–2000
05371920Buffalo River near Mondovi, Wis. .063 1,450 2,490 3,300 4,490 5,480 6,560 .10734C1974–2000
05372000Buffalo River near Tell, Wis. -.252 2,910 5,190 6,890 9,220 11,100 13,000 .12334G1933–1950
05378200Eagle Creek near Fountain City, Wis. .342 891 1,530 2,080 2,920 3,670 4,530 .11289C1961–2000
05378500Mississippi River at Winona, Minn. -.197 89,400 128,000 153,000 184,000 207,000 229,000 .03003G1879–2000
05379400Trempealeau River at Arcadia, Wis. -.138 4,240 7,580 10,200 13,800 16,800 20,000 .17306G1968–2000
05379500Trempealeau River at Dodge, Wis. -.162 3,920 6,610 8,610 11,300 13,500 15,700 .05763G1914–2000
05380800Black River tributary near Whittlesey, Wis. -.233 114 168 203 248 281 313 .06181C1960–2000
05380900Poplar River near Owen, Wis. -.037 4,610 7,140 8,960 11,400 13,300 15,300 .06617C1958–2000
05380970Cawley Creek near Neillsville, Wis. -.189 2,020 3,740 5,090 7,010 8,570 10,200 .09001C1961–2000
05381000Black River at Neillsville, Wis. -.271 12,900 19,800 24,500 30,300 34,700 39,000 .04130G1905–2000
05382000Black River near Galesville, Wis. -.169 20,800 32,000 39,600 49,600 57,100 64,700 .04836G1932–2000
05382200French Creek near Ettrick, Wis. -.297 818 1,460 1,940 2,590 3,100 3,620 .10613C1960–2000
05382300Beaver Creek tributary near Sparta, Wis. .040 127 178 213 258 292 327 .07281C1959–1980
05382500Little La Crosse River near Leon, Wis. –.237 999 1,700 2,210 2,890 3,420 3,960 .07038C1934–1981
05383000La Crosse River near West Salem, Wis. -.117 2,470 3,820 4,770 6,030 6,990 7,980 .05457G1914–1978
05386300Mormon Creek near La Crosse, Wis. -.292 788 2,020 3,190 5,090 6,800 8,760 .14656C1961–2000
05386500Coon Creek at Coon Valley, Wis. -.183 2,180 3,900 5,230 7,070 8,560 10,100 .17065G1934–1981
05387100North Fork Bad Axe River near Genoa, Wis. -.132 851 2,090 3,290 5,300 7,170 9,380 .13241C1959–2000
05388460Du Charme Creek at Eastman, Wis. .018 70 131 183 261 329 405 .13863C1961–1981
05389500Mississippi River at McGregor, Ia. -.133 109,500 148,300 172,900 203,100 224,900 246,200 .03576G1880–2000
05390140Muskrat Creek at Conover, Wis. -.131 62 85 99 117 130 143 .06163C1970–2000
05390240Fourmile Creek near Three Lakes, Wis. -.105 80 98 108 120 128 136 .03814C1970–2000
05391260Gudegast Creek near Starks, Wis. .175 68 88 101 117 130 143 .05001C1970–2000
05391950Squaw Creek near Harrison, Wis. -.108 25 36 42 51 58 64 .05962C1970–2000
05392150Mishonagon Creek near Woodruff, Wis. -.326 68 85 94 105 112 119 .02959C1958–2000
05392350Bearskin Creek near Harshaw, Wis. .394 76 100 117 139 156 174 .05049C1959–2000
05393500Spirit River at Spirit Falls, Wis. -.549 1,630 2,400 2,860 3,390 3,750 4,080 .04202G1942–2000
05393620Skanawan Creek near Tomahawk, Wis. .263 75 123 160 216 263 316 .16362C1970–1981
05393640Little Pine Creek near Irma, Wis. .014 126 178 214 259 294 328 .06279C1970–2000
05394000New Wood River near Merrill, Wis. -.031 1,230 1,960 2,490 3,230 3,810 4,410 .08813C1953–1980
05394200Devil Creek near Merrill, Wis. .452 290 442 563 741 893 1,060 .08165C1960–2000
05394500Prairie River near Merrill, Wis. -.062 1,410 2,120 2,610 3,250 3,750 4,250 .04415G1914–2000
05395020Lloyd Creek near Doering, Wis. -.170 296 449 554 689 790 892 .06970C1970–2000
05395100Trappe River tributary near Merrill, Wis. -.181 133 233 308 413 497 585 .08058C1959–2000
05396000Rib River at Rib Falls, Wis. -.480 6,950 11,800 15,200 19,400 22,400 25,400 .08037G1925–1957
05396100Pet Brook near Edgar, Wis. -.009 717 1170 1,520 1,990 2,380 2,780 .08734C1962–2000
05396300Wisconsin River tributary at Wausau, Wis. -.068 243 427 572 777 946 1130 .13267C1983–2000
05397500Eau Claire River at Kelly, Wis. -.215 3,180 4,740 5,780 7,100 8,070 9,030 .04256G1914–2000
05397600Big Sandy Creek near Wausau, Wis. .219 496 804 1,050 1,400 1,700 2,030 .08156C1959–2000
05399000Big Eau Pleine River near Colby, Wis. -.132 2,640 4,530 5,970 7,950 9,530 11,200 .14161G1942–1954
05399200Marsh Creek tributary near Abbotsford, Wis. -.313 124 223 296 395 471 550 .11085C1959–1980
05399500Big Eau Pleine River near Stratford, Wis. -.192 7,890 13,200 17,100 22,300 26,400 30,600 .05463G1914–2000
05400025Johnson Creek near Knowlton, Wis. .369 892 1,360 1,720 2,240 2,680 3,170 .09500C1973–2000
05400500Plover River near Stevens Point, Wis. .052 738 1,040 1,250 1,520 1,720 1,930 .09319G1914–1951
05400600Little Plover River near Arnott, Wis. -.473 41 61 73 88 98 108 .08562G1960–1975
05400650Little Plover River at Plover, Wis. -.462 48 69 83 99 109 120 .06093G1960–1987
05401050Tenmile Creek near Nekoosa, Wis. -.268 191 261 304 356 392 427 .05763G1964–2000
05401100Fourteenmile Creek near New Rome, Wis. .101 231 308 358 423 471 519 .06962G1961–1979
05401535Big Roche A Cri Creek near Adams, Wis. .205 167 251 313 398 468 542 .11350G1964–1978
05401800Yellow River tributary near Pittsville, Wis. -.346 388 551 653 774 860 941 .04770C1959–2000
05402000Yellow River at Babcock, Wis. -.654 4,850 7,100 8,410 9,870 10,800 11,700 .04208G1944–2000
05402500Yellow River at Sprague, Wis. -.521 3,520 5,430 6,630 8,060 9,050 9,980 .09808G1927–1940
05403000Yellow River at Necedah, Wis. -.646 5,990 9,150 11,100 13,200 14,700 16,000 .08511G1941–1957
05403500Lemonweir River at New Lisbon, Wis. -.695 2,860 4,290 5,130 6,070 6,680 7,220 .05027G1944–1994
05403520Webster Creek at New Lisbon, Wis. -.710 196 328 410 506 571 630 .07333C1961–2000
05403550Onemile Creek near Mauston, Wis. -.214 550 1,080 1,510 2,130 2,650 3,210 .10311C1958–2000
05403610Wisconsin River tributary at Wisconsin Dells, Wis. -.501 10 20 27 37 45 53 .13681C1962–1980
05403630Hulbert Creek near Wisconsin Dells, Wis. .269 97 162 216 297 366 445 .12340C1972–2000
05403700Dell Creek near Lake Delton, Wis. .205 286 512 703 995 1,250 1,550 .09854C1958–2000
05404116South Branch Baraboo River at Hillsboro, Wis. -.345 915 1,950 2,800 4,050 5,070 6,170 .18487G1988–2000
05404200Narrows Creek at Loganville, Wis. -.566 1,730 3,130 4,110 5,340 6,230 7,090 .08325C1958–2000
05405000Baraboo River near Baraboo, Wis. -.401 2,940 4,480 5,480 6,700 7,570 8,400 .04486G1914–2000
05405600Rowan Creek at Poynette, Wis. -.059 265 558 820 1,230 1,600 2,020 .11453C1961–2000
05406470Brewery Creek at Cross Plains, Wis. -.209 118 206 273 363 435 510 .14838G1985–2000
05406491Garfoot Creek near Cross Plains, Wis. .102 87 122 146 179 203 229 .10722G1985–1998
05406500Black Earth Creek at Black Earth, Wis. -.239 443 735 945 1,220 1,440 1,650 .06723G1954–2000
05406800Rocky Branch near Richland Center, Wis. -.022 107 243 374 589 790 1,030 .13916C1960–2000
05407100Richland Creek near Plugtown, Wis. -.003 687 1,410 2,050 3,060 3,970 5,010 .11895C1958–2000
05407200Crooked Creek near Boscobel, Wis. .055 399 768 1,090 1,580 2,010 2,500 .10273C1959–2000
05407400Morris Creek tributary near Norwalk, Wis. -.580 377 690 909 1,190 1,380 1,580 .11341C1959–1980
05408000Kickapoo River at La Farge, Wis. .196 2,510 4,250 5,650 7,740 9,520 11,500 .07215G1939–2000
05408500Knapp Creek near Bloomingdale, Wis. -.122 537 1,100 1,580 2,320 2,950 3,660 .17523G1954–1969
05408800Bishops Branch near Viroqua, Wis. -.354 1,060 2,630 4,070 6,320 8,270 10,400 .24061C1959–1969
05409830North Fork Nederlo Creek near Gays Mills, Wis. .136 60 129 193 301 403 525 .23001G1968–1979
05409890Nederlo Creek near Gays Mills, Wis. .122 324 1,060 2,000 3,990 6,270 9,460 .34378G1968–1980
05410000Kickapoo River at Gays Mills, Wis. -.121 3,060 5,160 6,740 8,910 10,600 12,500 .08414G1913–1977
05410490Kickapoo River at Steuben, Wis. .218 2,730 4,870 6,670 9,440 11,900 14,700 .07703G1982–2000
05413400Piegon Creek near Lancaster, Wis. .111 406 838 1,240 1,880 2,480 3,180 .11778C1960–2000
05413449Kickapoo Creek near North Andover, Wis. .074 900 2,150 3,420 5,620 7,780 10,400 .28172G1987–1996
05413500Grant River at Burton, Wis. -.395 5,520 11,000 15,200 21,100 25,800 30,600 .07369G1935–2000
05414000Platte River near Rockville, Wis. -.209 3,730 7,440 10,500 15,000 18,700 22,800 .07883G1935–2000
05414200Bear Branch near Platteville, Wis. -.489 387 663 852 1,090 1,260 1,430 .07644C1958–2000
05414213Little Platte River near Platteville, Wis. -.184 1,950 3,540 4,770 6,490 7,890 9,370 .15923C1988–2000
05414900Pats Creek near Elk Grove, Wis. .422 481 1,150 1,890 3,320 4,850 6,910 .16637C1960–2000
05415000Galena River at Buncombe, Wis. .137 4,310 7,390 9,880 13,500 16,700 20,100 .07721G1937–1992
05415500East Fork Galena River at Council Hill, Illi. .051 1,980 4,180 6,190 9,450 12,400 16,000 .13815G1940–1969
05423000West Branch Rock River near Waupun, Wis. -.626 323 670 931 1,270 1,530 1,770 .10544G1949–1981
05423300South Branch Rock River tributary near Waupun, Wis. -.506 163 377 556 811 1,020 1,230 .15136C1959–1980
05423500South Branch Rock River at Waupun, Wis. -.496 447 778 1,010 1,300 1,510 1,710 .08080G1949–2000
05423800East Branch Rock River tributary near Slinger, Wis. -.085 164 222 260 307 341 374 .05026C1960–1993
05424000East Branch Rock River near Mayville, Wis. -.249 1,060 1,990 2,720 3,740 4,570 5,440 .11921G1950–2000
05424300Rock River tributary near Watertown, Wis. -.699 108 190 244 308 351 392 .09865C1959–1980
05425500Rock River at Watertown, Wis. -.253 2,110 3,110 3,770 4,580 5,180 5,770 .04439G1932–2000
05425700Robbins Creek near Columbus, Wis. -.753 151 253 316 389 437 480 .07576C1960–2000
05425827Dup-Maunesha River near Sun Prairie, Wis. -.258 448 661 802 976 1,100 1,230 .08569C1973–2000
05426000Crawfish River at Milford, Wis. -.476 2,280 3,290 3,910 4,630 5,120 5,580 .03772G1931–2000
05426031Rock River at Jefferson, Wis. .077 4,620 6,440 7,680 9,280 10,500 11,800 .08277G1978–1994
05426100Scuppernong Creek near Wales, Wis. .080 97 126 145 169 187 204 .06193C1962–1980
05426250Bark River near Rome, Wis. -.297 290 364 408 456 490 521 .04965G1984–2000
05426500Whitewater Creek near Whitewater, Wis. -.249 14 22 28 36 41 47 .24343G1926–1954
05427000Whitewater Creek at Willis Ray Road near Whitewater, Wis. -.062 185 306 398 524 625 732 .13602G1927–1981
05427200Allen Creek near Fort Atkinson, Wis. -.108 101 161 204 262 306 353 .07360C1958–1993
05427570Rock River at Indianford, Wis. -.110 5,650 7,600 8,850 10,400 11,500 12,500 .05515G1976–2000
05427718Yahara River at Windsor, Wis. .199 405 667 874 1,180 1,430 1,720 .13485G1976–2000
05427800Token Creek near Madison, Wis. -.351 232 406 532 698 825 954 .08741C1961–2000
05427948Pheasant Branch at Middleton, Wis. -.546 324 564 727 930 1,080 1,220 .09161G1975–2000
05427965Spring Harbor Storm Sewer at Madison, Wis. -.470 397 567 670 789 871 947 .06103G1976–2000
05429500Yahara River near McFarland, Wis. .068 416 536 614 710 780 849 .03143G1930–2000
05430100Badfish Creek near Stoughton, Wis. -.494 461 675 806 958 1,060 1,160 .10237G1957–1966
05430150Badfish Creek near Cooksville, Wis. -.455 616 783 876 980 1,050 1,110 .05724G1978–2000
05430175Yahara River near Fulton, Wis. .502 1,560 2,190 2,670 3,350 3,910 4,510 .08950G1978–2000
05430403Fisher Creek tributary at Janesville, Wis. -.103 425 607 728 882 996 1,110 .08026C1982–2000
05430500Rock River at Afton, Wis. -.374 6,350 8,730 10,200 11,900 13,000 14,100 .03043G1914–2000
05431014Jackson Creek at Petrie Road near Elkhorn, Wis. -.134 177 287 367 473 557 643 .13122G1984–1995
054310157Jackson Creek tributary near Elkhorn, Wis. -.636 126 167 189 212 228 241 .05609G1984–2000
05431017Delavan Lake inlet at State Hwy. 50 at Lake Lawn, Wis. -.213 340 545 689 878 1,020 1,170 .10833G1984–2000
05431400Little Turtle Creek at Allens Grove, Wis. .048 1,330 2,233 2,936 3,939 4,769 5,667 .08519C1961–2000
05431486Turtle Creek at Carvers Rock Road near Clinton, Wis. -.123 1,810 3,400 4,690 6,560 8,120 9,820 .07659G1938–2000
05431500Turtle Creek near Clinton, Wis. -.328 2,074 3,903 5,306 7,235 8,756 10,330 .08868G1940–1981
05432300Rock Branch near Mineral Point, Wis. .363 277 574 865 1,370 1,870 2,490 .13182C1959–2000
05432500Pecatonica River at Darlington, Wis. .077 3,100 6,220 9,020 13,400 17,500 22,100 .09161G1937–2000
05433000East Branch Pecatonica River near Blanchardville, Wis. -.077 2,170 4,090 5,680 8,010 9,980 12,100 .08030G1940–2000
05433500Yellowstone River near Blanchardville, Wis. -.642 1,430 3,210 4,620 6,510 7,950 9,370 .10016C1955–2000
05434200Skinner Creek tributary near Monroe, Wis. -.463 42 75 98 129 151 173 .10576C1959–1980
05434500Pecatonica River at Martintown, Wis. -.219 5,260 8,600 11,000 14,100 16,500 19,000 .05719G1916–2000
05435900Sugar River tributary near Pine Bluff, Wis. -.056 153 287 398 561 699 851 .10646C1961–2000
05436000Mount Vernnon Creek near Mount Vernon, Wis. -.135 280 504 679 926 1,130 1,340 .13829G1955–1980
05436200Gill Creek near Brooklyn, Wis. .344 106 187 258 369 469 585 .10446C1960–2000
05436500Sugar River near Brodhead, Wis. -.177 3,340 5,990 8,030 10,900 13,200 15,600 .05817G1914–2000
05437200East Fork Raccoon Creek tributary near Beloit, Wis. .052 139 320 498 801 1,090 1,440 .14133C1958–1993
05543830Fox River at Waukesha, Wis. -.103 923 1,320 1,590 1,920 2,170 2,420 .05540G1960–2000
05544200Mukwonago River at Mukwonago, Wis. -.501 214 254 274 296 310 322 .02865G1974–2000
05544300Mukwonago River tributary near Mukwonago, Wis. -.553 30 50 64 80 92 103 .09608C1960–1981
05545100Sugar Creek at Elkhorn, Wis. .166 127 215 286 391 481 580 .09021C1962–2000
05545200White River tributary near Burlington, Wis. -.062 95 158 205 270 323 378 .07519C1958–2000
05545300White River near Burlington, Wis. -.198 808 1,300 1,650 2,110 2,470 2,830 .08984C1959–1982
05545750Fox River near New Munster, Wis. .543 2,660 4,310 5,710 7,880 9,830 12,100 .07927G1940–2000
05548150North Branch Nippersink Creek near Genoa City, Wis. -.056 185 284 355 450 523 599 .06716C1962–2000
Regulated Stations
04062011Brule River near Commonwealth, Wis. .180 3,153 4,889 6,203 8,050 9,561 11,190 .14200G1990–2000
04063000Menominee River near Florence, Wis. -.132 7,473 10,800 13,010 15,820 17,900 19,980 .03813G1915–2000
04066000Menominee River near Pembine, Wis. -.126 13,400 18,600 21,900 26,100 29,100 32,100 .05457G1950–1982
04067000Menominee River near Koss, MI -.453 13,420 18,560 21,620 25,140 27,520 29,730 .03456G1908–1981
04067500Menominee River near Mc Allister, Wis. .070 14,100 19,700 23,400 28,300 32,000 35,800 .04829G1945–2000
04084500Fox River at Rapide Croche Dam near Wrightstown, Wis. -.819 12,800 16,800 18,800 20,900 22,100 23,200 .02402G1918–2000
05333500St. Croix River near Danbury, Wis. -.130 4,700 6,400 7,490 8,830 9,800 10,700 .03180G1914–2000
05336000St. Croix River near Grantsburg, Wis. -.121 10,300 14,400 17,100 20,400 22,900 25,300 .04641G1923–1970
05340500St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wis. -.509 22,300 32,800 39,200 46,700 51,800 56,500 .03364G1902–2000
05356000Chippewa River at Bishops Bridge near Winter, Wis. -.565 2,980 4,640 5,680 6,900 7,740 8,520 .04317G1912–2000
05356500Chippewa River near Bruce, Wis. -.237 9,510 13,700 16,500 19,900 22,300 24,700 .03888G1914–2000
05357500Flambeau River at Flambeau Flowage, Wis. -.200 1,490 2,430 3,100 4,000 4,690 5,390 .07766G1928–1960
05358000Flambeau River near Butternut, Wis. .184 1,410 2,380 3,160 4,310 5,300 6,390 .16259G1915–1938
05358500Flambeau River at Babbs Island, Wis. -.576 4,190 6,100 7,250 8,550 9,420 10,200 .04650G1930–1975
05360000Flambeau River near Ladysmith, Wis. .080 8,490 11,500 13,500 16,100 18,000 20,000 .03628G1903–1961
05360500Flambeau River near Bruce, Wis. -.305 10,500 14,120 16,310 18,880 20,660 22,360 .03734G1952–2000
05365500Chippewa River at Chippewa Falls, Wis. -.357 38,400 53,200 62,300 72,900 80,300 87,400 .03411G1884–2000
05367000Chippewa River at Eau Claire, Wis. .874 38,200 52,200 63,300 79,600 93,600 109,000 .14336G1903–1954
05369500Chippewa River at Durand, Wis. .002 43,300 62,500 75,600 92,800 106,000 119,000 .04285G1880–2000
05391000Wisconsin River at Rainbow Lake near Lake Tomahawk, Wis. -.636 1,870 2,410 2,710 3,020 3,210 3,380 .02282G1937–2000
05392000Wisconsin River at Whirlpool Rapids near Rhinelander, Wis. -.520 3,000 3,930 4,450 5,010 5,390 5,720 .02443G1906–1961
05393000Tomahawk River at Bradley, Wis. -.049 1,245 1,776 2,134 2,591 2,935 3,282 .05212G1930–1973
05395000Wisconsin River at Merrill, Wis. -.403 13,600 18,800 21,900 25,500 28,000 30,400 .03038G1903–2000
05398000Wisconsin River at Rothschild, Wis. -.624 27,900 38,300 44,200 50,500 54,700 58,400 .02830G1941–2000
05400000Wisconsin River at Knowlton, Wis. -.703 36,210 47,490 53,520 59,830 63,770 67,190 .04751G1921–1942
05400760Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wis. -.580 33,400 46,500 54,100 62,500 68,000 73,100 .02992G1982–2000
05401500Wisconsin River near Necedah, Wis. -.621 32,400 45,700 53,300 61,700 67,200 72,200 .03070G1903–1950
05404000Wisconsin River near Wisconsin Dells, Wis. -.764 34,200 47,200 54,300 61,700 66,400 70,400 .02845G1935–2000
05406000Wisconsin River at Prairie du Sac, Wis. -.731 37,200 51,100 58,700 66,700 71,800 76,200 .02801G1944–1953
05407000Wisconsin River at Muscoda, Wis. -.689 35,900 48,800 55,900 63,400 68,200 72,400 .02718G1881–2000
05425912Beaver Dam River at Beaver Dam, Wis. -.283 495 625 701 787 846 901 .05405G1986–2000
05431022Delavan Lake Outlet at Borg Road near Delavan, Wis. -.492 227 328 389 460 508 553 .08051G1984–2000

Table A-2. Drainage-basin characteristics for rural streamflow-gaging stations in Wisconsin

[mi2, square miles; ft/mi, feet per mile; in/hr, inches per hour; in., inches; snowfall, mean annual snowfall; ft3/s, cubic feet per second; Q100, 100-year flood.]

Station numberStation nameContributing area(mi2)Slope(ft/mi)Storage(percent)Forest(percent)25-yr, 24-hrprecipitation(in.)Snowfall(in.)Soilpermeability(in./hr)Q100 byregression(ft3/s)Flood-frequency area
04024400Stony Brook near Superior, Wis.1.8656.30.0051.84.7952.90.126984
04025200Pearson Creek near Maple, Wis.4.0775.2.0039.64.7963.1.121,5934
04025500Bois Brule River near Brule, Wis.1183.6015.485.04.7974.92.982,0214
04026200Sand River tributary near Red Cliff, Wis.1.092041.7598.04.7981.5.125894
04026300Sioux River near Washburn, Wis.13.748.61.2182.64.7971.52.191,6144
04026400Spillerberg Creek near Cayuga, Wis.6.5911.539.481.44.6688.11.652404
04026450Bad River near Mellen, Wis.82.011.211.996.14.6694.51.652,9524
04026700Trout Brook tributary near Marengo, Wis..66179.0024.24.6691.5.125114
04027000Bad River near Odanah, Wis.59718.89.7080.04.6696.01.5121,2434
04027200Pearl Creek at Grandview, Wis.13.730.66.3893.14.7974.81.651,0254
04027500White River near Ashland, Wis.30119.113.180.04.6666.12.189,1064
04028000Montreal River at Ironwood, Mich61.48.6215.781.14.661721.652,2714
04029700Boomer Creek near Saxon, Wis.5.3384.613.184.14.661281.656364
04029990Montreal River at Saxon Falls near Saxon, Wis.26418.615.982.15.281071.659,2674
04059900Allen Creek tributary near Alvin, Wis.1.0212.05.6081.24.2478.34.1821.03
04063640North Branch Pine River at Windsor Dam near Alvin, Wis.27.84.4922.680.04.2480.03.712573
04063688South Branch Popple River near Newald, Wis.9.4718.518.593.84.2459.42.931343
04063700Popple River near Fence, Wis.1316.2422.894.54.2461.71.401,9433
04063800Woods Creek near Fence, Wis.41.414.824.079.44.2462.11.656593
04066300Cole Creek near Dunbar, Wis.3.2027.419.185.304.2456.12.9351.913
04066500Pike River at Amberg, Wis.25512.617.286.04.2454.43.681,6843
04066700McCall Creek at Wausaukee, Wis.1.3319.220.335.34.2453.3.50103.73
04067760Peshtigo River near Cavour, Wis.1504.4023.680.74.2458.61.452,0973
04067800Armstrong Creek near Armstrong Creek, Wis.23.17.5236.561.54.2458.92.043173
04069500Peshtigo River at Peshtigo, Wis.1,1206.2118.472.04.2451.22.417,7273
04069700North Branch Oconto River near Wabeno, Wis.34.110.015.571.94.2463.51.656183
04071000Oconto River near Gillett, Wis.6787.5016.888.04.2451.12.265,4933
04071700North Branch Little River near Coleman, Wis.23.310.615.826.24.2450.0.501,0084
04071800Pensaukee River near Pulaski, Wis.48.811.06.533.504.2449.9.572,3714
04073400Bird Creek at Wautoma, Wis.3.5927.75.5731.84.3841.84.3370.23
04073500Fox River at Berlin, Wis.1,430.8412.622.04.3841.13.699,0213
04074300Mud Creek near Nashville, Wis.9.056.8737.990.14.2466.52.911113
04074700Hunting River near Elcho, Wis.9.006.0929.280.14.2464.71.481973
04074850Lily River near Lily, Wis.45.610.116.885.14.2461.82.505593
04075200Evergreen Creek near Langlade, Wis.4.9019.79.9086.94.2455.31.921243
04075500Wolf River above West Branch Wolf River near Keshena, Wis.6339.6015.576.04.2450.12.784,5003
04077000Wolf River at Keshena Falls near Keshena, Wis.8129.5113.969.04.2449.12.516,1113
04078500Embarrass River near Embarrass, Wis.39511.915.036.04.2447.41.724,4703
04079000Wolf River at New London, Wis.2,2405.8014.643.04.3842.81.8121,9193
04079700Spaulding Creek near Big Falls, Wis.4.9018.520.884.54.3844.61.651463
04080000Little Wolf River at Royalton, Wis.5148.7715.835.04.3844.11.288,4593
04081000Waupaca River near Waupaca, Wis.27210.06.2026.04.3843.43.232,9743
04081010Waupaca River tributary near Waupaca, Wis.1.0030.41.004.004.3843.4.501723
04081900Sawyer Creek at Oshkosh, Wis.12.011.0.331.964.4645.0.124,6073
04083000West Branch Fond du Lac River at Fond du Lac, Wis.83.16.869.206.444.4634.7.482,7104
04083400East Branch Fond du Lac River tributary near Eden, Wis..9970.01.683.364.4635.51.251724
04083500East Branch Fond du Lac River at Fond du Lac, Wis.78.43.857.306.004.4634.4.702,0294
04085030Apple Creek near Kaukauna, Wis.15.211.8.001.994.4644.6.122,2564
04085100East River tributary at Greenleaf, Wis.7.1840.912.513.04.4644.8.695844
04085200Kewaunee River near Kewaunee, Wis.12710.5.438.924.4638.2.368,9954
04085300Neshota River tributary near Denmark, Wis.4.3122.9.002.604.4642.0.129644
04085400Killsnake River near Chilton, Wis.29.49.231.425.394.4645.8.222,4484
04085700Sheboygan River tributary near Plymouth, Wis.6.5121.02.5412.54.4643.9.397094
04086000Sheboygan River at Sheboygan, Wis.4184.639.6013.04.4646.7.689,2024
04086150Milwaukee River at Kewaskum, Wis.1384.7012.113.14.6640.6.613,3284
04086200East Branch Milwaukee River near New Fane, Wis.54.13.4415.127.14.4641.41.061,1024
04086340North Branch Milwaukee River near Fillmore, Wis.1484.106.5014.14.6642.6.863,7104
04086360Milwaukee River at Waubeka, Wis.4325.898.8614.64.6642.2.869,7714
04086400Milwaukee River tributary near Fredonia, Wis..8227.61.38.194.6639.0.121894
04086500Cedar Creek near Cedarburg, Wis.1209.9010.73.004.6642.5.644,0314
04087000Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, Wis.6965.329.9012.04.6640.6.7713,9394
04087050Little Menomonie River near Freistadt, Wis.8.0030.0.757.164.6639.5.507835
04087204Oak Creek at South Milwaukee, Wis.25.07.641.605.704.6648.9.509995
04087230West Branch Root River Canal tributary near North Cape, Wis.3.1921.42.042.554.6640.1.502315
04087233Root River Canal near Franklin, Wis.57.06.581.201.904.6641.1.502,1395
04087240Root River at Racine, Wis.1832.161.703.504.6644.1.273,4135
04087250Pike Creek near Kenosha, Wis.7.258.15.97.424.6640.0.803735
05333100Little Frog Creek near Minong, Wis.13.028.527.792.34.7960.51.775934
05334100Sawyer Creek near Shell Lake, Wis.1.0467.8.9616.84.7943.71.651934
05335380Bashaw Brook near Shell Lake, Wis.22.816.711.241.94.7950.22.409004
05340300Trade River near Frederic, Wis.6.3453.811.244.24.7957.21.651,0032
05341700Willow River tributary near New Richmond, Wis.1.4050.7.007.145.2845.71.652352
05341900Kinnickinnic River tributary at River Falls, Wis.7.2696.0.003.175.2846.1.464,5122
05346600Little Trimbelle Creek near Bay City, Wis.19.934.9.0017.65.2842.51.242,7322
05356200Kenyon Creek near Radisson, Wis.7.5012.224.787.94.7958.01.654352
05357360Bear River near Powell, Wis.1201.0852.462.84.6680.64.688564
05357390Weber Creek near Mercer, Wis.7.1014.610.890.34.6687.41.654024
05358100Smith Creek near Park Falls, Wis.9.4612.820.363.94.6674.1.804993
05359500South Fork Flambeau River near Phillips, Wis.6153.6933.372.64.6659.72.026,6453
05359600Price Creek near Phillips, Wis.16.95.1439.795.34.6659.71.743803
05360200Flambeau River tributary at Ladysmith, Wis..8015.228.848.74.7956.61.4170.12
05361400Hay Creek near Prentice, Wis.21.915.624.861.64.6653.3.481,4113
05361420Douglas Creek near Prentice, Wis.24.622.78.9074.44.6651.5.801,3013
05361600North Fork Jump River near Phillips, Wis.10.419.636.559.04.6656.11.383113
05362000Jump River at Sheldon, Wis.5748.3017.662.04.7947.6.6341,0522
05364000Yellow River at Cadott, Wis.3515.9614.163.04.7944.0.6719,8842
05364100Seth Creek near Cadott, Wis.3.0443.8.6632.94.7943.8.501,1082
05365000Duncan Creek at Chippewa Falls, Wis.1146.751.6011.04.7946.22.013,2232
05365700Goggle-Eye Creek near Thorp, Wis.6.7020.06.4216.94.6645.3.202,7952
05366000Eau Claire River near Augusta, Wis.5067.405.7045.04.7943.41.7215,5172
05366500Eau Claire River near Fall Creek, Wis.7586.364.4043.54.7945.01.7720,1022
05367030Willow Creek near Eau Claire, Wis.4.3857.1.009.804.7946.02.695062
05367480East Branch Pine Creek tributary near Dallas, Wis.3.8552.4.0012.24.7945.31.347262
05367500Red Cedar River near Colfax, Wis.1,1004.177.8038.75.2844.42.0219,3982
05367700Lightning Creek at Almena, Wis.19.817.15.568.144.7952.2.792,3932
05368000Hay River at Wheeler, Wis.4266.123.2032.45.2844.42.129,8722
05369000Red Cedar River at Menomonie, Wis.1,7604.336.0035.05.2839.22.2028,6332
05369800Eau Galle River tributary near Hersey, Wis..6568.2.0033.85.2845.7.632942
05370600Arkansaw Creek tributary near Arkansaw, Wis.2.56102.0027.35.2843.11.329031
05370900Spring Creek near Durand, Wis.6.4979.6.0056.95.2843.51.631,4381
05371300By Golly Creek near Nelson, Wis..28270.0050.05.2842.21.651821
05371800Buffalo River tributary near Osseo, Wis.1.4467.1.0044.45.2845.52.503671
05371920Buffalo River near Mondovi, Wis.2797.15.4124.95.2844.72.3913,4731
05372000Buffalo River near Tell, Wis.4066.302.1028.65.2841.92.3616,7381
05378200Eagle Creek near Fountain City, Wis.26.840.9.0047.65.2841.81.653,6841
05379500Trempealeau River at Dodge, Wis.6433.641.4025.85.2845.41.7718,9131
05380800Black River tributary near Whittlesey, Wis.2.1218.68.5031.64.6650.3.932762
05380900Poplar River near Owen, Wis.1577.044.1722.24.6646.1.5013,0272
05380970Cawley Creek near Neillsville, Wis.38.617.2.0820.34.6643.0.506,3952
05381000Black River at Neillsville, Wis.7565.817.3030.84.6641.6.6242,3182
05382000Black River near Galesville, Wis.2,1205.518.2043.75.2837.72.1559,5591
05382200French Creek near Ettrick, Wis.14.333.8.0026.65.2841.21.652,2501
05382300Beaver Creek tributary near Sparta, Wis.1.7266.2.0039.05.2842.04.224441
05382500Little La Crosse River near Leon, Wis.77.120.02.6030.45.2841.11.687,2101
05383000La Crosse River near West Salem, Wis.3986.983.1031.95.2839.82.9916,8951
05386300Mormon Creek near La Crosse, Wis.25.060.6.0036.05.2839.81.654,7181
05387100North Fork Bad Axe River near Genoa, Wis.80.927.3.0028.05.2935.51.659,8781
05388460Du Charme Creek at Eastman, Wis..30200.0030.05.2937.31.652041
05390140Muskrat Creek at Conover, Wis.10.28.454.4792.34.6679.73.372373
05390240Fourmile Creek near Three Lakes, Wis.10.38.2721.288.24.6674.73.011903
05391260Gudegast Creek near Starks, Wis.14.07.0422.775.04.6666.04.041923
05391950Squaw Creek near Harrison, Wis.3.2317.913.982.84.6659.12.50933
05392150Mishonagon Creek near Woodruff, Wis.13.96.7726.282.44.6683.56.221323
05392350Bearskin Creek near Harshaw, Wis.19.66.4828.769.34.6657.66.271703
05393500Spirit River at Spirit Falls, Wis.81.612.517.251.54.6656.0.852,8773
05393640Little Pine Creek near Irma, Wis.22.024.09.5579.94.6655.73.303893
05394000New Wood River near Merrill, Wis.82.214.714.584.24.6653.7.743,3423
05394200Devil Creek near Merrill, Wis.9.5810.52.4826.44.6652.9.501,0953
05394500Prairie River near Merrill, Wis.18410.423.274.64.6653.51.543,3083
05395020Lloyd Creek near Doering, Wis.7.8025.52.5774.44.2456.3.715033
05395100Trappe River tributary near Merrill, Wis.1.5835.0.0034.54.6653.7.505172
05396000Rib River at Rib Falls, Wis.30311.86.8055.44.6651.4.8921,8602
05396100Pet Brook near Edgar, Wis.6.8654.5.0015.34.6649.4.423,1442
05397500Eau Claire River at Kelly, Wis.3758.2811.445.24.6650.91.287,9553
05397600Big Sandy Creek near Wausau, Wis.11.520.3.0055.44.6653.6.471,7723
05399000Big Eau Pleine River near Colby, Wis.78.19.293.8017.44.6652.7.2514,0232
05399200Marsh Cr tributary near Abbotsford, Wis..5662.28.9316.04.6653.7.254922
05399500Big Eau Pleine River near Stratford, Wis.22410.11.9021.24.6666.6.3133,6192
05400025Johnson Creek near Knowlton, Wis.25.132.62.5556.44.6647.3.412,7883
05400500Plover River near Stevens Point, Wis.1455.6418.940.74.3844.81.792,2303
05400650Little Plover River at Plover, Wis.7.9110.71.5026.54.3842.75.961303
05401050Tenmile Creek near Nekoosa, Wis.55.86.548.0022.74.3843.88.463673
05401535Big Roche A Cri Creek near Adams, Wis.52.84.831.5038.74.3841.77.285273
05401800Yellow River tributary near Pittsville, Wis.7.2320.1.3027.54.3844.3.578663
05402000Yellow River at Babcock, Wis.2157.634.9039.24.3843.5.7713,2192
05403000Yellow River at Necedah, Wis.4916.079.4048.74.3834.31.6813,5022
05403500Lemonweir River at New Lisbon, Wis.5073.6515.644.24.3841.92.886,5592
05403520Webster Creek at New Lisbon, Wis.11.819.3.0041.74.3843.81.649082
05403550Onemile Creek near Mauston, Wis.30.215.9.5028.34.3847.71.262,3572
05403630Hulbert Creek near Wisconsin Dells, Wis.11.229.8.0944.35.2940.41.657213
05403700Dell Creek near Lake Delton, Wis.44.911.6.9428.55.2940.92.401,4833
05404200Narrows Creek at Loganville, Wis.40.129.1.0013.05.2943.61.594,3505
05405000Baraboo River near Baraboo, Wis.6092.02.6028.85.2938.21.4812,3005
05405600Rowan Creek at Poynette, Wis.10.430.4.308.905.1833.91.421,1525
05406500Black Earth Creek at Black Earth, Wis.42.89.42.2021.85.1834.91.521,4691
05406800Rocky Branch near Richland Center, Wis.1.68100.0040.95.2939.61.655811
05407100Richland Creek near Plugtown, Wis.19.251.8.0035.95.2936.11.653,6571
05407200Crooked Creek near Boscobel, Wis.12.951.1.0035.15.2935.31.652,5621
05407400Morris Creek tributary near Norwalk, Wis.4.59126.0029.95.2843.21.651,6691
05408000Kickapoo River at La Farge, Wis.2669.13.1034.05.2938.61.6314,4021
05410500Kickapoo River at Steuben, Wis.6904.30.3037.25.2935.41.5121,3971
05413400Pigeon Creek near Lancaster, Wis.6.9349.8.001.625.2933.31.653,2941
05413500Grant River at Burton, Wis.2699.73.0022.15.2931.51.6517,1751
05414000Platte River near Rockville, Wis.14211.5.0022.35.2934.11.6510,6721
05414200Bear Branch near Platteville, Wis.2.7260.2.001.075.2937.21.651,7031
05414900Pats Creek near Elk Grove, Wis.8.5026.9.004.005.2935.71.652,2681
05415000Galena River at Buncombe, Wis.12511.3.004.105.2933.21.6215,1451
05423000West Branch Rock River near Waupun, Wis.40.79.5810.01.574.4638.1.961,4224
05423300South Branch Rock River tributary near Waupun, Wis.12.613.814.51.184.4638.21.005283
05423500South Branch Rock River at Waupun, Wis.63.68.338.201.504.4638.21.511,6243
05423800East Branch Rock River tributary near Slinger, Wis.4.4274.2.997.564.6639.0.806635
05424000East Branch Rock River near Mayville, Wis.1813.213.8010.65.1837.1.794,5094
05424300Rock River tributary near Watertown, Wis.4.5813.2.004.585.1838.2.564125
05425500Rock River at Watertown, Wis.9691.3812.19.105.1839.5.996,4545
05425700Robbins Creek at Columbus, Wis.8.0121.01.993.865.1836.21.655335
05425827Maunesha River near Sun Prairie, Wis.26.012.9.873.455.1834.61.471,5185
05426000Crawfish River at Milford, Wis.7622.5011.17.405.1837.21.187,0265
05426100Scuppernong Creek near Wales, Wis.5.6921.113.112.74.6638.72.672015
05427200Allen Creek near Fort Atkinson, Wis.10.215.54.113.245.1837.12.984595
05427800Token Creek near Madison, Wis.24.38.531.243.435.1833.61.651,1025
05430100Badfish Creek near Stoughton, Wis.39.88.011.784.405.1832.41.921,5185
05430500Rock River at Afton, Wis.3,340.7411.47.905.1831.51.2014,8535
05432300Rock Branch near Mineral Point, Wis.4.8380.1.006.425.2936.5.982,2591
05432500Pecatonica River at Darlington, Wis.2738.25.0011.75.2935.41.5719,1891
05433000East Branch Pecatonica River near Blanchardville, Wis.2218.25.1017.25.2930.0.6814,2031
05433500Yellowstone River near Blanchardville, Wis.28.526.4.007.005.2935.1.515,7071
05434200Skinner Creek tributary near Monroe, Wis..48136.00.005.1837.9.123251
05434500Pecatonica River at Martintown, Wis.1,0302.27.3011.55.1829.61.0813,5771
05435900Sugar River tributary near Pine Bluff, Wis.7.4243.9.0010.85.1833.8.429101
05436000Mount Vernon Creek near Mount Vernon, Wis.16.425.0.0013.05.1834.0.361,2701
05436200Gill Creek near Brooklyn, Wis.3.3457.3.005.695.1833.51.656201
05436500Sugar River near Brodhead, Wis.5233.18.9012.05.1831.91.088,8431
05437200East Fork Raccoon Creek tributary near Beloit, Wis.4.6424.3.003.855.1830.2.785545
05543830Fox River at Waukesha, Wis.1266.735.206.704.6639.3.562,8545
05544300Mukwonago River tributary near Mukwonago, Wis.1.3221.1.004.554.6639.83.751645
05545100Sugar Creek at Elkhorn, Wis.6.6812.03.604.044.6642.2.362895
05545200White River tributary near Burlington, Wis.2.4234.8.832.484.6640.11.082805
05545300White River near Burlington, Wis.97.515.115.413.34.6637.8.812,1715
05546500Fox River at Wilmot, Wis.8681.117.8010.04.6644.2.746,1855
05548150North Branch Nippersink Creek near Genoa City, Wis.13.512.83.801.674.6642.82.755575

Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Acrobat Reader 6.0, which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.


U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri034250
Page Contact Information: GS Pubs Web Contact
Last modified: Thursday, September 01 2005, 05:11:47 PM
FirstGov button  Take Pride in America button