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Geologic Framework of the Edwards Aquifer and Upper Confining Unit, and Hydrogeologic Characteristics of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Uvalde County, Texas

By Allan K. Clark and Ted A. Small

U.S. Geological Survey
Water-Resources Investigations Report 97–4094


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Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Methods of Investigation

Acknowledgments

Geologic Framework

General Features

Stratigraphy

Depositional History

Hydrogeologic Characteristics

Summary

References Cited

Plate

1.   Map showing stratigraphic units of the Edwards aquifer outcrop and upper confining unit, south-central Uvalde County, Texas

Figure

1.   Map showing location of study area and depositional provinces

Tables

1.   Summary of the lithologic and hydrologic properties of the stratigraphic units of the Devils River trend, south-central Uvalde County, Texas
2.   Summary of the lithologic and hydrologic properties of the stratigraphic units of the Maverick Basin, south-central Uvalde County, Texas

Abstract

The stratigraphic units of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County generally are porous and permeable. The stratigraphic units that compose the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County are the Devils River Formation in the Devils River trend; and the West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations in the Maverick Basin. The Balcones fault zone is the principal structural feature in Uvalde County; however, the displacement along the fault zone is less in Uvalde County than in adjacent Medina and Bexar Counties to the east. The Uvalde Salient is a structural high in south-central Uvalde County, and consists of several closely connected crustal uplifts that bring Edwards aquifer strata to the surface generally forming prominent hills. The crustal uplifts forming this structural high are the remnants of intrusive and extrusive magnatic activity. Six primary faults—Cooks, Black Mountain, Blue Mountain, Uvalde, Agape, and Connor—cross the length of the study area from the southwest to the northeast juxtaposing the Lower Cretaceous Salmon Peak Formation at the surface in the northwestern part of the study area against Upper Cretaceous formations in the central part of the study area. In the study area, the porosity of the rocks in the Edwards aquifer is related to depositional or diagenetic elements along specific stratigraphic horizons (fabric selective) and to dissolution and structural elements that can occur in any lithostratigraphic horizon (not fabric selective). Permeability depends on the physical properties of the rock such as size, shape, distribution of pores, and fissuring and dissolution. The middle 185 feet of the lower part of the Devils River Formation, the upper part of the Devils River Formation, and the upper unit of the Salmon Peak Formation probably are the most porous and permeable stratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County.




U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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