USGS

Preliminary Conceptual Models of the Occurrence, Fate, and Transport of Chlorinated Solvents in Karst Regions of Tennessee

SELECTED REFERENCES

Al-sheriadeh, M.S., and Illangasekare, T.H., 1993, Modeling of transport of nonaqueous phase contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers, in Proceedings of the 1993 Ground Water Modeling Conference: Golden, Colorado, International Ground Water Modeling Center Colorado School of Mines, p. 3.1- 3.19.

Alexander, E.C., 1989, Karst hydrogeology and the nature of reality: The Minnesota Experience: Expanded text of the keynote address, in Conference on Environmental Problems in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions, 2d, November 17, 1988, Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, 63 p.

Anderson, M.R., 1988, The dissolution and transport of dense nonaqueous phase liquids in saturated porous media: Oregon Graduate Center, Portland, Oregon, Ph.D. dissertation.

Anderson, M.R., Johnson, R.L., and Pankow, J.F., 1992, Dissolution of dense chlorinated solvents into groundwater: 3. Modeling contaminant plumes from fingers and pools of solvent: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 26, p. 901-908.

Bailey, Z.C., and Lee, R.W., 1991, Hydrogeology and geochemistry in Bear Creek and Union Valleys, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 90-4008, 72 p.

Barner, Wendell, and Uhlman, Kristine, 1995, Contaminant transport mechanisms in karst terrains and implications on remediation, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 207-212.

Barr, T.C., Jr., 1961, Caves of Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Geology Bulletin 64, 567 p.

Bebout, Don, Davies, Graham, Moore, C.H., Scholle, P.S., and Wardlaw, N.C., 1979, Geology of carbonate porosity short course: Houston, Tex., American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Department of Education, various pagination.

Becher, A.E., 1989, Geohydrology and water quality in the vicinity of the Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site, Pennsylvania: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4154, 44 p.

Bingham, R.H., 1986, Regionalization of winter low-flow characteristics of Tennessee streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4007, 88 p.

Bradfield, A.D., 1992, Hydrology of the Cave Springs area near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4018, 28 p.

Bradley, M.W., 1984, Ground water in the Dickson area of the western Highland Rim of Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 82-4088, 42 p.

Brahana, J.V., and Bradley, M.W., 1986, Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee--The Central Basin aquifer system: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 82-4002, 35 p.

Brahana, J.V., Bradley, M.W., and Mulderink, Dolores, 1986c, Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee--Tertiary aquifer system: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4011, 23 p.

Brahana, J.V., and Hollyday, E.F., 1988, Relation between the hydrogeology of carbonate rocks and the development of karst landforms [abs.], in Karst Hydrogeology and Karst Environment Protection, Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, 21st, Guilin, China, October 10-15, 1988, Proceedings: International Association of Hydrogeologists Congress, p. 270-275.

Brahana, J.V., Macy, J.A., Mulderink, Dolores, and Zemo, Dawn, 1986, Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee--Cumberland Plateau aquifer system: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-338, 24 p.

Brahana, J.V., Mulderink, Dolores, Macy, J.A., and Bradley, M.W., 1986, Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee--the East Tennessee aquifer system: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 82-4091, 30 p.

Brahana, J.V., Thrailkill, John, Freeman, Tom, and Ward, W.C., 1988, Carbonate rocks, in Back, William, Rosenshein, J.S., and Seaber, P.R., eds., Hydrogeology: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The geology of North America, v. O-2, p. 333-352.

Burchett, C.R., 1977, Water Resources of the upper Duck River basin, central Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Water Resources Series no. 12, 103 p.

Burchett, C.R., and Hollyday, E.F., 1974, Tennessee's newest aquifer [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 6, no. 4, p. 338.

Campbell, T.J., Burris, D.R., Roberts, A.L., and Wells, J.R., 1997, Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene reduction in a metallic iron-water-vapor batch system: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 16, no. 4, p. 625-630.

Chen, M., 1988, Some experiences in compiling hydrogeological maps of karstic terrains in China [abs.], in Karst Hydrogeology and Karst Environment Protection: Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, 21st, Guilin, China, 1988, Proceedings: International Association of Hydrogeologists Congress, v. 2, p. 1221-1228.

Cherry, J.A., 1989, Hydrogeologic contaminant behavior in fractured and unfractured clayey deposits in Canada, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., Symposium on Contaminant transport in groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 11-20.

______1996, Conceptual models of chlorinated solvent plumes and their relevance to intrinsic bioremediation in Symposium on Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Organics in Ground Water, Dallas, Texas, September 11-13, 1996: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/540/R-96/509, p. 29-30.

Chieruzzi, G.O., Duck, J.J., Valesky, J.M., and Markwell, R., 1995, Diffuse flow and DNAPL recovery in the Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis limestones, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 213-225.

Cohen, R.M., and Mercer, J.W., 1993, DNAPL site evaluation: Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press, various p.

Crawford, N.C., 1987, The karst hydrogeology of the Cumberland Plateau Escarpment of Tennessee: Subterranean stream invasion, conduit cavern development, and slope retreat in the Lost Creek Cove area, White County, Tennessee: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology Report of Investigations no. 44, pt. 1, 43 p.

______1989, The karst hydrogeology of the Cumberland Plateau Escarpment of Tennessee: Karst valley development and the headward advance of the Sequatchie Valley in the Grassy Cove area, Cumberland County, Tennessee: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology Report of Investigations no. 44, pt. 2, 41 p.

______1992, The karst hydrogeology of the Cumberland Plateau Escarpment of Tennessee: Karst valley development in the Lost Cove area, Franklin County, Tennessee: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology Report of Investigations no. 44, pt. 3, 23 p.

Crawford, N.C., and Ulmer, C.S., 1994, Hydrogeologic investigations of contaminant movement in karst aquifers in the vicinity of a train derailment near Lewisburg, Tennessee: Environmental Geology, v. 23, p. 41-52.

Crawford, N.C., and Veni, George, 1986, Karst-hazard assessment for Tennessee--sinkhole flooding, sinkhole collapse, and ground-water contamination: Bowling Green, Kentucky, Western Kentucky University, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, Underground Water Source Protection Grant G004358-83-0, 1 sheet, scale 1:1,000,000.

Currens, J.C., 1995, Mass flux of agricultural nonpoint-source pollutants in a conduit-flow-dominated karst aquifer, Logan County, Kentucky, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 179-187.

Cvijic, J., 1893, Das karstphänomonen--Versuch einer morphologischen Monographie: Vienna, Geographische Abhandlungen herugegeben von A. Penk, v. 5, no. 3, p. 218-329.

Davis, S.N., 1988, Sandstones and shales, in Back, William, Rosenshein, J.S., and Seaber, P.R., eds., Hydrogeology: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The geology of North America, v. O-2, p. 323-332.

Davis, S.N., and Turk, L.J., 1964, Optimum depth of wells in crystalline rocks: Ground Water, v. 2, no. 2, p. 6-11.

Doll, W.E., 1992, High-resolution seismic reflection data are acquired at Bear Creek Burial Ground, in Littleton, L.W., Earth and Atmospheric Sciences [WWW document, updated December 1, 1996, accessed January 19, 1997] URL http://www.esd.ornl.gov/annual-reports/FY92/earth.html

Even, H., Carmi, I., Magaritz, M., and Gerson, R., 1986, Timing the transport of water through the upper vadose zone in a karstic system above a cave in Israel: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 11, p. 181-191.

Everts, C.J., Kanwar, R.S., Alexander, E.C., Jr., and Alexander, S.C., 1989, Comparison of tracer mobilities under laboratory and field conditions: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 18, no. 4, p. 491-498.

Faust, C.R., 1985, Transport of immiscible fluids within and below the unsaturated zone: a numerical model: Water Resources Research, v. 21, no. 4, p. 587-596.

Faust, C.R., Guswa, J.H., and Mercer, J.W., 1989, Simulation of three-dimensional flow of immiscible fluids within and below the unsaturated zone: Water Resources Research, v. 25, no. 12, p. 2449-2464.

Feenstra, S., 1990, Evaluation of multi-component DNAPL sources by monitoring of dissolved-phase concentrations, in Conference on Subsurface Contamination by Immiscible Fluids, Calgary, Alberta, April 18-20, 1990, Proceedings: International Association of Hydrogeologists.

Fenneman, N.M., 1938, Physiography of Eastern United States: New York, McGraw-Hill, 714 p.

Fenneman, N.M., and Johnson, Douglas, 1946, Physical divisions of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Special Map, 1 sheet, scale 1:7,000,000.

Fetter, C.W., 1993, Contaminant hydrogeology: New York, Macmillan, 458 p.

Field, M.S., 1988a, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency strategy for ground water quality monitoring at hazardous waste land disposal facilities located in karst terranes: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/D-88/241, 10 p.

______1988b, The vulnerability of karst aquifers to chemical contamination: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/D-89/008, 13 p.

______1989, The fate and transport of chemical contaminants in karst terranes: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/D-90/001, 14 p.

______1993, Karst hydrology and chemical contamination: Journal of Environmental Systems, v. 22, no. 1, p. 1-26.

Ford, D.C., Palmer, A.N., and White, W.B., 1988, Landform development; karst, in Back, William, Rosenshein, J.S., and Seaber, P.R., eds., Hydrogeology: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The geology of North America, v. O-2, p. 401-412.

Ford, D.C., and Williams, P.W., 1989, Karst geomorphology and hydrology: London, Unwin and Hyman, 601 p.

Ford, J.F., 1993, Transport and fate of dissolved dense nonaqueous phase liquids in an alluvial and karst/fractured aquifer, Valley and Ridge Province, Mid-Eastern United States: Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Montana, Department of Geology.

Gale, S.J., 1984, The hydraulics of conduit flow in carbonate aquifers: Journal of Hydrology, v. 70, no. 1-4, p. 309-327.

Germain, Diane, and Frind, E.O., 1989, Modelling of contaminant migration in fracture networks: Effects of matrix diffusion, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., eds., International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 267-274.

Germann, Peter, and Beven, Keith, 1981, Water flow in soil macropores I--an experimental approach: Journal of Soil Science, v. 32, p. 1-13.

Glover, Tim, Daniel, Joe, and Lonergan, Andrew, 1995, The use of geochemical methods in the investigation of hazardous waste sites in covered karst terrain, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 235-240.

Griffith, G.E., Omernik, J.M., and Azevedo, S.H., 1997, Ecoregions of Tennessee: Corvallis, Oreg., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, EPA/600/R-97/022, 50 p.

Guarnaccia, J.F., and Pinder, G.F., 1992, A new two-phase flow and transport model with interphase mass exchange, in Computational methods in water resources IX, v. 2: Mathematical modeling in water resources: Boston, Computational Mechanics Publications, p. 281-288, 2 fig., 12 ref.

Gunn, John, 1992, Hydrogeological contrasts between British carboniferous limestone aquifers, in Back, William, Herman, J.S., and Paloc, Henri, eds., Hydrogeology of selected karst regions: International Contributions to Hydrogeology, v. 13, p. 25-42.

Guswa, J.H., 1985, Application of multi-phase flow theory at a chemical waste landfill, Niagara Falls, New York, in Durham, N.N., and Redelfs, A.E., eds., International Conference on Groundwater Quality Research, 2d, 1984, Proceedings: Stillwater, Okla., National Center for Groundwater Research, p. 108-111.

Hanchar, D.W., 1988, Geology of an area near Brentwood, Williamson County, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4176, 24 p.

Hannah, E.D., Pride, T.E., Ogden, A.E., and Paylor, Randy, 1989, Assessing ground water flow paths from pollution sources in the karst of Putnam County, Tennessee, in Beck, B.F. ed., Engineering and environmental impacts of sinkholes and karst: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes, 3rd, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, October, 2-4, 1989, Proceedings, p. 183-188.

Hardeman, W.D., 1966, Geologic map of Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Geology map, 4 sheets, scale 1:250,000.

Harvey, E.J., and Skelton, John, 1968, Hydrologic study of a waste-disposal problem in a karst area at Springfield, Missouri, in Geological Survey Research 1968: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 600-C, p. C217-C220.

Haugh, C.J., 1996, Well-construction, water-level, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for the J4 hydrogeologic study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-763, 81 p.

Haugh, C.J., and Mahoney, E.N., 1994, Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4207, 69 p.

Haugh, C.J., Mahoney, E.N., and Robinson, J.A., 1992, Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-135, 88 p.

Helton, R.E., 1987, Identifying contaminant pathways in coastal plains clays: exposing the myth of impermeability: Ground Water, v. 25, no. 5, p. 610.

Henry, S.M., and Grbic-Galic, D., 1994, Biodegradation of trichloroethylene in methanotrophic systems and implications for process applications, in Chaudhry, G.R., ed., Biological degradation and bioremediation of toxic chemicals: Portland, Oregon, Dioscorides Press.

Herak, M., and Stringfield, V.T., 1972, Karst: Important karst regions of the northern hemisphere: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 551 p.

Higgins, C.G., and Coates, D.R., eds., 1990, Groundwater geomorphology; the role of subsurface water in Earth-surface processes and landforms: Boulder, Colo., The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 252, 368 p.

Hinkle, K.R., and Sterrett, R.McC., 1976, Rockingham County ground water--present conditions and prospects: Virginia Water Control Board Planning Bulletin 300, 88 p.

______1978, Groundwater resources of Augusta County, Virginia: Virginia Water Control Board Planning Bulletin 310, 119 p.

Hollyday, E.F., and Hileman, G.E., in press, Hydrogeologic terranes and potential yield of water to wells in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in the eastern and southeastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1422-C, 30 p.

Hollyday, E.F., Hileman, G.E., and Duke, J.E., 1997, The Elkton aquifer or western toe aquifer of the Blue Ridge Mountains: regional perspective for a local Tennessee aquifer [abs.], in Gangaware, Tim, LeQuire, Elise, Perry, Kirsten, and Cordy, Tina, comps., Extended Abstracts from Seventh Tennessee Water Resources Symposium and Student Symposium, Nashville, Tenn., 1997: American Water Resources Association, p. 330-331.

Holmes, D.B., and Campbell, K.W., 1990, Contaminant stratification at a deeply penetrating, multiple component DNAPL site, in Superfund `90: National Conference, 11th, Washington, D.C., November 26-28, 1990, Proceedings, p. 492-497.

Huling, S.G., and Weaver, J.W., 1991, Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids: Ada, Okla., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, EPA/540/4-91-002, 21 p.

Hunt, J.R., Sitar, N., and Udell, K.S., 1988, Nonaqueous phase liquid transport and cleanup, 1: Analysis of mechanisms: Water Resources Research, v. 24, no. 8, p. 1247-1258.

Hutson, S.S., 1995, Ground-water use by public-supply systems in Tennessee in 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-483, 1 sheet.

Jancin, Mark, and Ewart, James, 1995, Prediction and testing of hydraulic parameters in interstratal karst of the Valley and Ridge Province, Pennsylvania, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 125-130.

Jennings, J.N., 1985, Karst geomorphology (2d ed.): Oxford, Blackwell, 293 p.

Johnson, R.L., 1987, The dissolution of residual dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from a saturated porous medium: Ground Water, v. 25, no. 5, p. 610.

Johnson, R.L., and Pankow, J.F., 1992, Dissolution of dense chlorinated solvents into groundwater--2. Source functions for pools of solvent: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 26, p. 896-901.

Johnson, S.E., 1995, Hydrogeology of the Cascade Springs area near Tullahoma, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4002, 17 p.

Julian, H.E., and Young, S.C., 1995, Conceptual model of groundwater flow in a mantled karst aquifer and effects of the epikarst zone, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 131-139.

Kemmerly, P.R., 1980, Sinkhole collapse in Montgomery County, Tennessee: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology Environmental Geology Series No. 6, 42 p.

______1981, Doline growth patterns on the western Highland Rim: Initiation to steady-state conditions: Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, v. 56, no. 1, p. 12-14.

Killebrew, J.B., and Safford, J.M., 1874, Introduction to the resources of Tennessee: Nashville, Tenn., Tavel, Eastman, and Howell, 1193 p.

King, P.B., 1950, Geology of the Elkton area, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 230, 82 p.

Kraus, D.L., and Dunn, A.L., 1983, Trichloroethylene occurrence and ground-water restoration in highly anisotropic bedrock: a case study, in National Symposium on Aquifer Restoration and Ground-Water Monitoring, 3rd, Proceedings: Worthington, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 76-81.

Kueper, B.H., Frind, E.O., and McWhorter, D.B., 1989, The behavior of dense nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants in heterogeneous porous media, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 381-387.

Kueper, B.H., Haase, C.S., and King, H.L., 1992, Leakage of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids from waste impoundments constructed in fractured rock and clay: theory and case history: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, v. 29, no. 2, p. 234-244.

Kueper, B.H., and McWhorter, D.B., 1991, The behavior of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids in fractured clay and rock: Ground Water, v. 29, p. 1-33.

Kueper, B.H., Redman, David, Starr, R.C., Reitsma, Stanley, and Mah, May, 1993, A field experiment to study the behavior of tetrachloroethylene below the water table: Spatial distribution of residual and pooled DNAPL: Ground Water, v. 31, no. 5, p. 756-766.

Leonard, R.B., 1962, Ground-water geology along the northwest foot of the Blue Ridge between Arnold Valley and Elkton, Virginia: Blacksburg, Va., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 211 p.

Lindhult, E.C., Tischuk, M.D., and Moose, R.D., 1990, Major remediation: removal and recovery of TCE from soil and groundwater, in Hazardous and Industrial Wastes: Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, 22nd, Proceedings: Lancaster, Pa., Tectonic Publishing, p. 303-320.

Lucius, J.E., Olhoeft, G.R., Hill, P.L., and Duke, S.K., 1992, Properties and hazards of 108 selected substances: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-527, 554 p.

Magdalene, Suzanne, and Alexander, E.C., Jr., 1995, Sinkhole distribution in Winona County, Minnesota revisited, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 43-51.

Marrin, D.L., and Thompson, G.M., 1987, Gaseous behavior of TCE overlying a contaminated aquifer: Ground Water, v. 25, no. 1, p. 21-27.

Martel, Richard, 1988, Groundwater contamination by organic compounds in Ville Mercier: New Developments, in Demonstration of remedial technologies for contaminated land and groundwater: NATO/CCMS Second International Conference, Bilthoven, the Netherlands, November 7-11, 1988, p. 144-177.

Matthews, L.E., 1971, Descriptions of Tennessee caves: Tennessee Division of Geology Bulletin 69, 150 p.

McCarthy, K.A. and Johnson, R.L. 1993, Transport of volatile organic compounds across the capillary fringe: Water Resources Research, v. 29, p. 1675-1683.

McIelwain, T.A., Jackman, D.W., and Beukema, P., 1989, Characterization and remedial assessment of DNAPL PCB oil in fractured bedrock: a case study of the Smithville, Ontario site, in FOCUS Conference on Eastern Regional Ground Water Issues, October 17-19, 1989, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 303-315.

McKay, L.D., Cherry, J.A., and Gillham, R.W., 1993, Filed experiments in a fractured clay till: 1. Hydraulic conductivity and fracture aperture: Water Resources Research, v. 29, p. 1149-1162.

Meng, A.A., III, Harsh, J.F., and Krull, T.K., 1985, Virginia ground-water resources in National water summary 1984--Hydrologic events, selected water-quality trends, and ground-water resources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2275, p. 427-432.

Mercer, J.W., and Cohen, R.M., 1990, A review of immiscible fluids in the subsurface: properties, models, characterization and remediation: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 6, p. 107-163.

Mercer, J.W., Silka, L.R., and Faust, C.R., 1983, Modeling ground-water flow at Love Canal, New York: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 109, no. 4, p. 924-942.

Michalski, Andrew, Metlitz, M.N., and Whitman, I.L., 1995, A field study of enhanced recovery of DNAPL pooled below the water table, in Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation: Dublin, Ohio, Ground Water Publishing Co., v. 15, no. 1, p. 90-100.

Milanovic, P.T., 1981, Karst hydrogeology: Denver, Water Resources Publications, 434 p.

Milici, R.C., 1968, The physiography of the Sequatchie Valley and adjacent portions of the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Geology Report of Investigations 22, 15 p.

Miller, R.A., 1974, The geologic history of Tennessee: Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology Bulletin 74, 63 p.

Mills, H.H., and Starnes, D.D., 1983, Sinkhole morphometry in a fluviokarst region--Eastern Highland Rim: Zeitschrift für geomorphologie, v. 27, p. 39-54.

Moore, G.K., 1988, Concepts of groundwater occurrence and flow near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee: Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Environmental Sciences Division Publication no. 3218, ORNL/TM-10969, 96 p.

Murphy, J.R., and Thomson, N.R., 1993, Two-phase flow in a variable aperture fracture: Water Resources Research, v. 29, p. 3453-3476.

National Research Council, 1994, Alternatives for ground water cleanup: Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 315 p.

Newcome, Roy, Jr., 1958, Ground water in the Central Basin of Tennessee, a progress report: Tennessee Division of Geology Report of Investigations no. 4, 81 p.

Newcome, Roy, Jr., and Smith, Ollie, Jr., 1962, Geology and ground-water resources of the Knox Dolomite in Middle Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Water Resources Series no. 4, 43 p.

Newton, J.G., 1987, Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the Eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 968, 54 p.

Nichols, D.G., and Gibbons, T.G., 1988, Remediation of ground water containing tetrachlorethylene, in Proceedings of the second National outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods, 2d, Las Vegas, May 23-26, 1988, Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, v. 3, p. 1343-1362.

Nitao, J.J., Iovenitti, J.L., and Devany, R.O., 1991, Quantitative evaluation of TCE vadose zone migration to ground water, Building 518, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in 1991 annual meeting, San Diego, 1991: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 23, no. 5, p. 76.

Palmer, A.N., 1984, Geomorphic interpretation of karst features in LaFleur, R.G., ed., Groundwater as a geomorphic agent: London, Allen & Unwin, p. 173-209.

______1986, Prediction of contaminant paths in karst aquifers, in Environmental Problems in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions, Conference, 1st, Bowling Green, Ky., 1986: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 32-53.

Pankow, J.F., and Cherry, J.A., 1988, Foreword to Dense chlorinated solvents in porous and fractured media: Schwille, F., 1988, (English translation by Pankow, J.F.), Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press, 146 p.

______1996, Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPL's in groundwater: history, behavior, and remediation: Portland, Ore., Waterloo Press, 522 p.

Parker, B.L., and Cherry, J.A., 1995, Age-dating DNAPL source zones from diffusion profiles in low-permeability layers, in 1995 annual meeting, New Orleans: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, no. 6, p. 141.

Parker, B.L., Gillham, R.W., and Cherry, J.A., 1994, Diffusive disappearance of immiscible-phase organic liquids in fractured geologic media: Ground Water, v. 32, no. 5, p. 805-820.

Piper, A.M., 1932, Ground water in north-central Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 640, 238 p.

Poulsen, M.M., and Kueper, B.H., 1992, A field experiment to study the behavior of tetrachloroethylene in unsaturated porous media: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 26, no. 5, p. 889-895.

Pruess, K., and Tsang, Y.W., 1990, On two-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure of rough-walled rock fractures: Water Resources Research, v. 26, no. 9, p. 1915-1926.

Quigley, R.M., and Fernandez, F., 1989, Clay/organic interactions and their effect on the hydraulic conductivity of barrier clays, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., Contaminant transport in groundwater, International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 117-124.

Quinlan, J.F., 1978, Types of karst, with emphasis on cover beds in their classification and development: Austin, Tex., University of Texas, Ph.D. dissertation, 323 p.

______1989, Ground-water monitoring in karst terranes: recommended protocols and implicit assumptions: Las Vegas, Nev., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, EPA/600/X-89/050, 100 p.

______1994, Problems of groundwater monitoring in carbonate aquifers: where, when, and how to solve them, with a discussion of principles: Geological Society of America, 8 p., 2 tables.

Quinlan, J.F., and Aley, Thomas, 1987, Discussion of "A new approach to the disposal of solid waste on land," by Heath, R.C., and Lehr, J.H.: Ground Water, v. 25, no. 5, p. 615-616.

Quinlan, J.F., and Ewers, R.O., 1985, Ground-water flow in limestone terranes: Strategy rationale and procedure for reliable, efficient monitoring of ground-water quality in karst areas, in National Symposium and Exposition on Aquifer Restoration and Ground-Water Monitoring, 5th, Columbus, Ohio, Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 197-234.

Quinlan, J.F., and Ray, J.A, 1991, Ground-water remediation may be achievable in some karst aquifers that are contaminated but it ranges from unlikely to impossible in most: I. Implications of long-term tracer tests for universal failure in goal attainment by scientists, consultants, and regulators, in Hydrogeology, Ecology, Monitoring, and Management of Ground Water in Karst Terranes Conference, 3rd, Nashville, Tenn., Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Ground Water Association.

Quinlan, J.F., Ray, J.A., and Schindel, G.M., 1995, Intrinsic limitations of standard criteria and methods for delineation of groundwater-source protection areas (springhead and wellhead protection areas) in carbonate terranes: Critical review, technically-sound resolution of limitations, and case study in a Kentucky karst, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 525-537.

Quinlan, J.F., Smart, P.L., Schindel, G.M., Alexander, E.C., Edwards, A.J., and Smith, A.R., 1992, Recommended administrative/regulatory definition of karst aquifers, principles for classification of carbonate aquifers, practical evaluation of vulnerability of karst aquifers, and determination of optimum sampling frequency at springs, in Conference on Hydrogeology, Ecology, Monitoring, and Management of Ground Water in Karst Terranes, 3rd, Proceedings: Ground Water Management, (Publisher: Dublin, Ohio, Water Well Journal Publishing Co.), v. 10, p. 573-635.

Royster, D.L., 1984, The use of sinkholes for drainage: Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, 63rd, Washington, D.C., January 16-20, 1984, 27 p.

Rubin, P.A., 1992, Land-use planning and watershed protection in karst terranes, in Conference on hydrogeology, ecology, monitoring, and management of ground water in karst terranes, 3rd, Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 4-6, 1991, Proceedings: Ground Water Management, v. 10, p. 769-793.

Rutledge, A.T., and Mesko, T.O., 1996, Estimated hydrologic characteristics of shallow aquifer systems in the Valley and Ridge, the Blue Ridge, and the Piedmont physiographic provinces based on analysis of streamflow recession and base flow: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1422-B, 58 p.

Sasowsky, I.D., White, W.B., and Webb, J.A., 1995, Acid mine drainage in karst terranes: Geochemical considerations and field observations, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 241-247.

Schmelling, S.G., and Ross, R.R., 1989, Contaminant transport in fractured media: Models for decision makers: Ada, Okla., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, EPA/540/4-89/004, 8 p.

Schwille, Friedrich, 1988, Dense chlorinated solvents in porous and fractured media: (English translation by Pankow, J.F.), Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, 146 p.

Seiler, K.P., Maloszewski, P., and Behrens, H., 1989, Results on hydrodynamic dispersion in the karstified aquifer of the Upper Jura of Frankonian Alb, F.R. Germany, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., Contaminant transport in groundwater, International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 83-87.

Shevenell, L., Dreier, R.B., and Jago, W.K., 1992, Karst features are identified in the Maynardville Limestone, Bear Creek Valley, in Littleton, L.W., Earth and Atmospheric Sciences [WWW document, updated December 1, 1996, accessed January 19, 1997] URL: http://www.esd.ornl.gov/annual-reports/FY92/earth.html

Smalley, G.W., 1980, Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the western Highland Rim and Pennyroyal: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-30, 120 p.

Smart, P.L, and Hobbs, S.L., 1986, Characterization of carbonate aquifers: A conceptual base, in Conference on Environmental Problems in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions, Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 28-30, 1986, Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 1-14.

Smith, D.B., 1972, Physical erosion and denudation rates in Carwright Basin and vicinity, Williamson County, Tennessee: Nashville, Tenn., Vanderbilt University, M.S. thesis, 60 p.

Smith, Ollie, Jr., 1962, Ground-water resources and municipal water supplies of the Highland Rim in Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Water Resources Series no. 3, 257 p.

Sprinkle, C.L., 1973, A Study of factors controlling the chemical quality of water in Cartwright Creek Basin, Williamson County, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University, M.S. thesis, 147 p.

Stringfield, V.T., Rapp, J.R., and Anders, R.B., 1979, Effects of karst and geologic structure on the circulation of water and permeability in carbonate aquifers, in Back, William, and Stephenson, D.A., eds., Contemporary Hydrogeology--the George Burke Maxey Memorial Volume: Journal of Hydrology, v. 43, p. 313-332.

Sudicky, E.A., and MacQuarrie, K.T.B., 1989, Behavior of biodegradable organic contaminants in random stationary hydraulic conductivity fields, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 307-315.

Sweeting, M.M., 1972, Karst landforms: London, Macmillan, 362 p.

Thomas, G.W., and Phillips, R.E., 1979, Consequences of water movement in macropores: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 8, no. 2, p. 149-152.

Trainer, F.W., 1988, Plutonic and metamorphic rocks, in Back, William, Rosenshein, J.S., and Seaber, P.R., eds., Hydrogeology: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The geology of North America, v. O-2, p. 367-380.

Tryon, B.W., 1992, The bog turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergii, in Tennessee, 1992--A progress report submitted to Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and Tennessee Nature Conservancy on activities related to this project, during 1992: Knoxville, Tennessee, Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 130 p.

Tucci, Patrick, 1992, Hydrology of Melton Valley at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4131, 76 p.

Tuck, D.M., and Iversen, G.M., 1995, Gravity mobilization of DNAPL under reduced interfacial tension: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, no. 6, p. 404.

U.S. Bureau of Census, 1996, Census-track data for all Tennessee counties, 1990 Census of housing: Paperless product downloaded July 1996, from http://www.census.gov

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992a, Superfund record of decision (EPA region 4): National Electric Coil/Cooper Industries, Ky. (First remedial action), September 1992: Washington, D.C., Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, 42 p.

______1992b, Estimating potential for occurrence of DNAPL at Superfund Sites: Quick Reference Fact sheet: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 9 p.

Uhlman, K., 1992, Groundwater dating locates VOC source: Environmental Protection, v. 3, no. 9, p. 56-62.

VanderKwaak, J.E., and Sudicky, E.A., 1996, Dissolution of nonaqueous-phase liquids and aqueous-phase contaminant transport in discretely-fractured porous media: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 23, no. 1-2, p. 45-68.

Vogel, Peter, and Giesel, Wilfried, 1989, Propagation of dissolved substances in rock: Theoretical consideration of the relationship between systems of parallel fractures and homogeneous aquifers, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 275-280.

Vogel, T.M., and McCarty, P.L., 1985, Biotransformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions: Applied Environmental Microbiology, v. 49, p. 1080-1083.

Waite, L.A., and Thomson, K.C., 1993, Development, description, and application of a geographic information system data base for water resources in karst terrane in Greene County, Missouri: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4154, 31 p.

Watson, K.W., and Luxmoore, R.J., 1986, Estimating macroporosity in a forest watershed by use of a tension infiltrometer: Soil Science Society of America Journal, v. 50, p. 578-582.

Watts, L.G., and Cooper, D.M., 1989, An investigation of the contamination of a dual porosity chalk aquifer by chlorinated hydrocarbons, in Kobus, H.E., and Kinzelbach, W., International Symposium on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, Stuttgart, April 4-6, 1989, Proceedings: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 481-482.

Webster, D.A., and Bradley, M.W., 1988, Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-686, 115 p.

Wells, E.R., and Krothe, N.C., 1989, Seasonal fluctuation in δ15N of groundwater nitrate in a mantled karst aquifer due to macropore transport of fertilizer-derived nitrate: Journal of Hydrology, v. 112, p. 191-201.

White, S.L., 1974, Clay mineralogy of the Wells Creek dolomite, Stones River Group and Nashville Group in Central Tennessee: Nashville, Tenn., Vanderbilt University, M.S. thesis, 149 p.

White, W.B., 1969, Conceptual models for carbonate aquifers: Ground Water, v. 7, no. 3, p. 15-21.

______1977, Conceptual models for carbonate aquifers: revisited, in Dilamarter, R.R., and Csallany, S.C., eds., Hydrologic problems in karst terrains, Symposium, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, Proceedings: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 176-187.

______1988, Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains: N.Y., Oxford University Press, 464 p.

______1990, Surface and near-surface landforms, in Higgins, C.G., and Coates, D.R., Groundwater geomorphology--the role of subsurface water in earth-surface processes and landforms: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Publication 252, p. 157-175.

White, W.B., and Deike, G.H., III, 1989, Hydraulic geometry of cave passages, in White, W.B., and White, E.L., eds., Karst hydrology: concepts from the Mammoth Cave area: New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, p. 223-258.

White, W.B., Watson, R.A., Pohl, E.R., and Bruckner, Roger, 1970, The central Kentucky karst: Geographical Review, v. 60, p. 88-115.

White, W.B., and White, E.L., 1983, Karst landforms and drainage basin evolution in the Obey River basin, north-central Tennessee, USA: Journal of Hydrology, v. 61, p. 69-82.

______1989, Karst hydrology: concepts from the Mammoth Cave area: New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 346 p., 2 maps in pocket.

______1995, Thresholds for soil transport and the long term stability of sinkholes, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst geohazards--engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane: Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 5th, Gatlinburg, 1995: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 73-78.

Williams, P.W., 1983, The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology: Journal of Hydrology, v. 61, p. 45-67.

______1985, Subcutaneous hydrology and the development of doline and cockpit karst: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 29, p. 463-482.

Wilson, C.W., Jr., 1962, Stratigraphy and geologic history of Middle Ordovician rocks of Central Tennessee: Tennessee Division of Geology Report of Investigations no. 15, 24 p.

Wilson, G.V., Jardine, P.M., Luxmoore, R.J., Zelazny, L.W., Lietzke, D.A., and Todd, D.E., 1991a, Hydrogeochemical processes controlling subsurface transport from an upper subcatchment of Walker Branch watershed during storm events. 1. Hydrologic transport processes: Journal of Hydrology, v. 123, p. 297-316.

Wilson, G.V., Jardine, P.M., Luxmoore, R.J., Zelazny, L.W., Todd, D.E., and Lietzke, D.A., 1991b, Hydrogeochemical processes controlling subsurface transport from an upper subcatchment of Walker Branch watershed during storm events. 2. Solute transport processes: Journal of Hydrology, v. 123, p. 317-336.

Wilson, J.L., Conrad, S.H., Mason, W.R., Peplinski, William, and Hagan, Edward, 1990, Project Summary: Laboratory investigation of residual liquid organics from spills, leaks and the disposal of hazardous wastes in groundwater: Ada, Okla., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, EPA/600/6-90/004, 5 p.

Wolfe, W.J., 1994, Hydrologic monitoring of remnant bogs and potential wetland restoration sites in Shady Valley, Johnson County, East Tennessee [abs.], in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Conference, Hendersonville, North Carolina, November 14-17, 1994: Gatlinburg, Tennessee, Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program, p. 33.

______1996a, Karst wetlands of The Barrens--geomorphic control of wetland hydrology and plant distribution on the Highland Rim of Tennessee: Worcester, Massachusetts, Clark University, Ph.D. dissertation, 147 p.

______1996b, Hydrology and tree-distribution patterns of karst wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 96-4277, 46 p.

Zhan, X., 1992, Finite element analysis on dense nonaqueous phase liquid and water flows in deformable soil, in Computer Techniques in Environmental Studies IV: Boston, Computational Mechanics Publications, p. 259-274.

Zurawski, Ann, 1978, Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources--Tennessee Region: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 813-L, 35 p.



Next Title Page Table of Contents List of Illustrations List of Tables Conversion Factors and Vertical DatumGlossary
Last modified: Thu Aug 3 08:58:49 CDT 2000