By Timothy S. Hayes
Water-Resources Investigations report 99-4168
Prepared in cooperation with the
South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the West Dakota Water Development District
The report is available in PDF format.
Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework.
X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs.
Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the upper Minnelusa Formation, which is caused by upward leakage of relatively fresh water from the Madison aquifer. The anhydrite dissolution and dedolomitization account for the net removal of minerals that would lead to breccia pipe formation by gravitational collapse. Breccia pipes in the lower Minnelusa Formation are uncommon; however, networks of interconnected breccia layers and breccia dikes are common. These networks, along with vertical fractures and faults, are likely pathways for transmitting upward leakage from the Madison aquifer.
It is concluded that suspended sediment discharged at Cascade Springs probably results from episodic collapse brecciation that is caused by subsurface dissolution of anhydrite beds and cements of the upper Minnelusa Formation, accompanied by replacement of dolomite by calcite. It is further concluded that many breccia pipes probably are the throats of artesian springs that have been abandoned and exposed by erosion. The locations of artesian spring-discharge points probably have been shifting outwards from the center of the Black Hills uplift, essentially keeping pace with regional erosion over geologic time. Thus, artesian springflow probably is a factor in controlling water levels in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, with hydraulic head declining over geologic time, in response to development of new discharge points.
Development of breccia pipes as throats of artesian springs would greatly enhance vertical hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of spring-discharge points. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the Minnelusa Formation also may be enhanced by dissolution processes related to upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. Potential processes could include dissolution resulting from leakage in the vicinity of breccia pipes that are abandoned spring throats, active spring discharge, development of subsurface breccias with no visible surface expression or spring discharge, as well as general areal leakage from the Madison aquifer into the Minnelusa Formation.
General Geohydrology and Possible Sediment Sources
Methods of Data Collection and Analyses
Evaluation of Possible Sediment Sources
Mineralogy of Suspended Sediment and Possible Sediment Sources
Examination of Lower Hell Canyon and Breccias
Mineralogic Analysis of Minnekahta Limestone Breccia
Grain-Size Analyses of Upper Minnelusa Formation Breccia Pipes and Wall Rocks
Geochemical Evolution of Cascade Springs Water
Previous Modeling Efforts
New Modeling Efforts
Input Data Sets
Chemical Composition of Ground Water
Stoichiometries of Aquifer Minerals
Isotopic Values for Aquifer Minerals and Ground Water
Implications for the Role of Artesian Springs in Regional Geohydrology
Summary and Conclusions
For additional information write to:
U.S. Geological survey
1608 Mt. View Road
Rapid City, SD 57702
Copies of this report can be purchased from:
U.S. Geological Survey
Branch of Information Services
Denver, CO 80225-0286
Download the PDF version of the report for high-resolution, printable pages (1MB).
Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Acrobat Reader 5.0 for Windows (English only), which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.
AccessibilityFOIAPrivacyPolicies and Notices
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri994168
Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
Last modified: Thursday, September 01 2005, 02:04:15 PM