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Effects of Land Use and Hydrogeology on the Water Quality of Alluvial Aquifers in Eastern Iowa and Southern Minnesota, 1997

Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4246

By Mark E. Savoca, Eric M. Sadorf, S. Mike Linhart, and Kymm K.B. Akers

 

U.S. Geological Survey, Iowa City, IA

 

The full report is available in pdf.  Link to the pdf.


Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells at 31 agricultural and 30 urban sites in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit during June–August 1997 to evaluate the effects of land use and hydrogeology on the water quality of alluvial aquifers. Ground-water samples were analyzed for common ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide metabolites, volatile organic compounds, and environmental isotopes.

Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate were the dominant ions in most samples and were likely derived from solution of carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) present in alluvial detrital deposits. Chloride and nitrate were dominant anions in samples from several wells. Sodium and chloride concentrations were significantly higher in samples from urban areas, where roads are more numerous and road salts may be more frequently applied, than in agricultural areas. Nitrate was detected in 94 percent of samples from agricultural areas and 77 percent of samples from urban areas. Nitrate concentrations were significantly higher in agricultural areas than in urban areas and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum ontaminant level for drinking water (10 milligrams per liter as N) in 39 percent of samples from agricultural areas. Nitrate concentrations in samples from urban areas did not exceed the maximum contaminant level. Greater use of fertilizers in agricultural areas most likely contributes to higher nitrate concentrations in samples from those areas.

Tritium-based ages indicate ground water was most likely recharged after the 1950’s at all but one sampling site. Agricultural and urban land-use areas have remained relatively stable in the study area since the 1950’s; therefore, the effects of current land use should be reflected in ground water sampled during this study. Radon-222 was detected in all samples and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s previously proposed maximum contaminant level for drinking water (300 picocuries per liter) in 71 percent of samples.

Pesticides were detected in 84 percent of samples from agricultural areas and 70 percent from urban areas. Atrazine and metolachlor were the most frequently detected pesticides in samples from agricultural areas; atrazine and prometon were the most frequently detected pesticides in samples from urban areas. None of the pesticide  oncentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels or lifetime health advisories for drinking water. Pesticide metabolites were detected in 94 percent of samples from agricultural areas and 53 percent from urban areas. Metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid and deethylatrazine were the most frequently detected metabolites in samples from agricultural areas; metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid and alachlor ethane sulfonic acid were the most frequently detected metabolites in samples from urban areas.

Total metabolite concentrations were significantly higher in samples from agricultural areas than in samples from urban areas. Total pesticide concentrations (parent compounds) tended to be higher in samples from agricultural areas; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Metabolites constituted the major portion of the total residue concentration in the alluvial aquifer.

Volatile organic compounds were detected in 40 percent of samples from urban areas and 10 percent from agricultural areas. Methyl tertbutyl ether was the most commonly detected volatile organic compound and was present in 23 percent of samples from urban areas. Elevated concentrations (greater than 30 micrograms per liter) of methyl tert-butyl ether and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) in two samples from urban areas suggest the possible presence of point-source gasoline leaks or spills.

Factors other than land use may contribute to observed differences in water quality between and within agricultural and urban areas. Nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine concentrations were significantly higher in shallow wells with sample intervals nearer the water table and in wells with thinner cumulative clay thickness above the sample intervals. These relations suggest that longer flow paths allow for greater residence time and increase opportunities for sorption, degradation, and dispersion, which may contribute to decreases in nutrient and pesticide concentrations with depth. Nitrogen speciation was influenced by redox conditions. Nitrate concentrations were significantly higher in ground water with dissolved-oxygen concentrations in excess of 0.5 milligram per liter. Ammonia concentrations were higher in ground water with dissolved-oxygen concentrations of 0.5 milligram per liter or less; however, this relation was not statistically significant. The amount of available organic matter may limit denitrification rates. Elevated nitrate concentrations (greater than 2.0 mg/L) were significantly related to lower dissolved organic carbon concentrations in water samples from both agricultural and urban areas. A similar relation between nitrate concentrations (in water) and organic carbon concentrations (in aquifer material) also was observed but was not statistically significant

Contents

Abstract.

Introduction

Purpose and Scope

Description of the Study Area

Acknowledgments

Study Design and Methods

Site Selection

Well Installation

Land-use Classification

Sample Collection

Water-Quality Analysis

Statistical Analysis

Effects of Land Use and Hydrogeology on Water Quality

Common Ions

Nutrients

Radiochemicals

Pesticides and Metabolites

Volatile Organic Compounds

Summary and Conclusions

References

Appendix

 

Suggested citation

Savoca, M.E., Sadorf, E.M., Linhart, S.M., and Akers, K.K.B., 2000, Effects of landuse and hydrogeology on the water quality of alluvial aquifers in Eastern Iowa and Southern Minnesota, 1997: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4246, 38 p.

 


AVAILABILITY

The text and graphics are presented here in pdf format (print quality):

The full report is 2.4 MB


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