Chapter 11 -- National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition

Previous Contents Next


11.D.1. Description

Domestic water use includes water used for household purposes such as drinking, food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing toilets, car washing, and watering lawns and gardens. Households include single and multi-family dwellings, such as apartments, condominiums, and small mobile home parks. Domestic use is separated into inside household uses (bathing, flushing toilets, laundry, cleaning, and cooking) and outside household uses (lawn and garden watering, car washing, and pools). Inside uses tend to be consistent year round while outside uses tend to increase during specific seasons, usually summer, depending on the type of climate. In a study by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (1984a), the largest components of inside household use are toilet flushing (39 percent) and bathing (30 percent), which are typical of other estimates in the literature. Outside household uses range from near 0 percent in humid areas to 60 percent in arid areas (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1984a).

The domestic water-use activities include withdrawals from ground and surface water; deliveries from public water suppliers; consumptive use in the form of evaporation, usually during outdoor use, but also through washing and cooking; releases into wastewater-collection systems; and return flow, usually through septic systems (fig. 4).

11.D.2. Sources of domestic water-use information

Important sources for most of the above recommended domestic water-use data are (1) studies of domestic water use by any of several State agencies, including those responsible for water-data collection, safe drinking water, planning, or water-resource management; and (2) public water suppliers and wastewater-treatment systems, including studies done for them by consulting firms.

11.D.3. Measurement, estimation, and data-collection methods for domestic water use

Domestic water withdrawals and return flow usually are determined by multiplying the self-supplied or self-disposed population by a per capita value (coefficient of water use per person per day). Deliveries to domestic users are determined from public water-supply customer records or from estimation methods described in the public water-supply section of this chapter. Releases after domestic use are determined from wastewater treatment customer records or estimation methods described in the wastewater collection and return flow section of this chapter. Evaporation consumptive use is estimated.

Figure 4.

Figure 4. Diagram of domestic water use.

11.D.4. Domestic selected references

These references are supplemental to the ones in the General reference Section.

Agthe, D.E., Billings, R.B., and Dworkin, J.M., 1988, Effects of rate structure knowledge on household water use: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 24, no. 3, p. 627-630.

Baumann, D.D., Boland, J.J., and Sims, J.H., 1981, The evaluation of water conservation for municipal and individual water supply, illustrative examples: Fort Belvoir, Va., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for Water Resources, contract report 82-C1, 356 p.

Bruvold, W.H., and Smith, B.R., 1988, Developing and assessing a model of residential water conservation: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 24, no. 3, p. 661-669.

California Department of Water Resources, 1983, Urban water use in California: California Department of Water Resources Bulletin 166-3, 239 p.

Claborn, B.J., Trauth, K.M., West, R.L., Urban, L.V., 1988, Residential water use study of Lubbock, Texas, in Symposium on Water-Use Data for Water-Resources Management, Tucson, Ariz., 1988, Proceedings: American Water Resources Association, TPS-88-2, p. 872.

DiNatale, K.N., 1981, An assessment of water use and policies in northern Colorado cities: Fort Collins, Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, 200 p.

Featherstone, J.P., 1991, Economic and social benefits of low-consumption toilets in the Delaware River Basin: Annual Conference on Resources, Engineering and Operations for the New Decade, 1991, Proceeding:, in American Water Works Association, p 763-772.

Flack, J.E., 1981, Residential water conservation: American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Water Resources Planning and Management Division, Proceedings Paper 16080, p. 85-95.

Goodrich, D.L., 1991, Analysis of a domestic water well survey: Water Well Journal, v. 45, no. 6, 32 p.

Jones, C.V., Boland, J.J., Crews, J.E., DeKay, C.F., and Morris, J.R., 1984, Municipal water demand--statistical and management issues: Boulder, Co., and London, Westview Press, 170 p.

Maddaus, W.O., 1987, The effectiveness of residential water conservation measures: Denver, Co., Journal of the American Water Works Association, March 1987.

McCray, K., 1986, Water well industry survey: Water Well Journal, v. 40, no. 9, 58 p.

Morgan, W.D., and Smolen, J.C., 1976, Climatic indicators in estimation of municipal water demand: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 12, no. 3, p. 511- 518.

Seaker, E.M., Sharpe, W.E., 1988, Water use in eight central Pennsylvania homes in Symposium on Water-Use Data for Water-Resources Management, Tucson, Ariz., 1988, Proceedings: American Water Resources Association, TPS-88-2, p. 872.

Seidel, H.F., 1985, Water utility operating data--an analysis: American Water Works Association Journal, v. 77, no. 5, p. 34-41.

U.S. Department of Commerce, 1982, 1980 Census of housing: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1984a, Residential water conservation projects--Summary report: Office of Policy, Development, and Research, Building Technology Division.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1984b, Survey of water fixture use: Office of Policy, Development, and Research, Building Technology Division.

Previous Contents Next