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Circular 1377

Materials Flow of Indium in the United States in 2008 and 2009

By Thomas G. Goonan

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Indium is a material that has many applications. It is used by anyone who watches television or views a computer screen. It is found in solar energy arrays and in soldering applications that are required to be lead free. In 2009, about 550 metric tons (t) of indium metal was produced from primary sources world-wide; it was estimated that the United States consumed about 110 t of indium metal (20 percent of world primary production). However, when imports of consumer products that contain indium are considered, the United States consumed about 200 t of indium (36 percent of world primary production).

When one considers the recovery from the low-efficiency sputtering process that coats indium-tin oxide onto glass and other surfaces, the recycling rate (within the manufacturing process that uses indium-tin oxide in flat panel displays approaches 36 percent. However, indium recovery from old scrap generated from end-of-life consumer products is not sufficiently economic to add significantly to secondary production.

Between 1988 and 2010, indium prices averaged $381 per kilogram (in constant 2000 dollars). However, prices have been quite volatile (deviating from the average of $381 per kilogram by ±$199 per kilogram, a 52 percent difference from the average), reflecting short-term disequilibrium of supply and demand but also responsiveness of supply to demand. The dynamics of zinc smelting govern the primary supply of indium because indium is a byproduct of zinc smelting. Secondary indium supply, which accounts for about one-half of total indium supply, is governed by indium prices and technological advances in recovery. Indium demand is expected to grow because the number and volume of cutting edge technology applications that depend on indium are expected to grow.

First posted July 23, 2012

For additional information contact:
Thomas G. Goonan
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25046
Mail Stop 750
Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225–0046
Telephone: (303) 236–5209

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Suggested citation:

Goonan, T.G., 2012, Materials flow of indium in the United States in 2008 and 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1377, 12 p., available at




Structure of the Indium Industry in the United States

World Production

Production Processes






References Cited

Appendix 1

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