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Circular 1224--Assessing Ground-Water Vulnerability to Contamination: Providing Scientifically Defensible Information for Decision Makers


Aller, L., Bennett, T., Lehr, J.H., and Petty, R.J., 1985, DRASTIC- A standardized system for evaluating ground water pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report EPA/600/2-85/018, 163 p.

Alley, W.M., 1993, Regional Ground Water Quality, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY. 635 p.

Alley, W.M., Reilly, T.E., and Franke, O.L., 1999, Sustainability of ground-water resources. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1186, 79 p.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000, Standard guide for selection of methods for assessing ground water or aquifer sensitivity and vulnerability. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. 19 p.

Arnold, T.L. and Friedel, M.J., 2000, Effects of land use on recharge potential of surficial and shallow bedrock aquifers in the Upper Illinois River basin. U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4027, 18 p.

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Bohlke, J.K., and Denver, J.M., 1995, Combined use of groundwater dating, chemical, and isotopic analyses to resolve the history and fate of nitrate contamination in two agricultural watersheds, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland. Water Resources Research v. 31, no. 9, pp 2319-2339.

Chapelle, F.H., Robertson, J.F., Landmeyer, J.E., and Bradley, P.M., 2000, Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4161. 47 p.

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Duncan, D., Pederson, D.T., Shepherd, T.R., and Carr, J.D., 1991, Atrazine used as a tracer of induced recharge: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 11, no. 4, p. 144-150.

Durnford, D.S., Thompson, K.R., Ellerbrook, D.A., Loftis, J.C., and Davies, G.S., 1990, Screening methods for ground water pollution potential from pesticide use in Colorado agriculture: Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, Fort Collins, Completion Report No. 157, 165 p.

Erwin, M.L., and Tesoriero, A.J., 1997, Predicting ground-water vulnerability to nitrate in the Puget Sound Basin: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 061-97, 4 p.

Focazio, M.J., Z. Szabo, T.F. Kraemer, A.H. Mullin, T.H. Barringer, and V.T. dePaul, 2000, Occurrence of selected radionuclides in ground water used for drinking water in the United States: A reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273. 40 p.

Franke, O.L., Reilly, T.E., Pollock, D.W., and LaBaugh, J.W., 1998, Estiminating areas contributing recharge to wells: Lessons from previous studies, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1174, 14 p.

Garrett, P., Williams, J.S., Rossoll, C.F., and Tolman, A.L., 1989, Are ground water vulnerability classification systems workable in FOCUS Conference on Eastern Regional Ground Water Issues, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, October 17-19, Proceedings: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 329-343.

Greene, E.A., 1997, Tracing recharge from sinking streams over spatial dimensions of Kilometers in a karst aquifer. Ground Water, vol. 33., no.5. pp. 898-904

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Hamerlinck, J.D., and Ameson, C.S., 1998, Wyoming ground water vulnerability assessment handbook: University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, Spatial Data Visualization Center, Report SDVC 98-01, 2 Volumes, Accessed December 2000 at URL

Harbaugh, A.W., Banta, E.R., Hill, M.C., and McDonald, M.G., 2000, MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model – Users guide to modularization concepts and the ground-water flow process. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-92, 121 p.

Hearne, G.A., Wireman, M., Campbell, A., Turner, S., and Ingersoll, G.P., 1992, Vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination in the Greater Denver area, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4143, 243 p.
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Helsel, D.R. and Hirsch, R.M., 1992, Statistical Methods in Water Resources. Elsevier Publishers, New York, 529 p.

Hill, M.C., Banta, E.R., Harbaugh, A.W., and Anderman, E.R., 2000, Documentation of MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model, User's guide to the Observation, Sensitivity, and Parameter-Estimation Process and three post-processing programs: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-184, 209p.

Holden, L.R., J.A. Graham, R. W. Whitmore, W.J. Alexander, R. W. Pratt, S.K. Liddle, and L.L. Piper, 1992, Results of the National Alachlor Well Water Survey. Environmental Science and Technology 26 (5), p. 935-943.

Holtschlag, D.J., and C.L. Luukkonen, 1997, Vulnerability of ground water to atrazine leaching in Kent County, Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4198. 49 p.

Johansson, P.O., Scharp, C., Alveteg, T., Choza, A., 1999, Framework for ground-water protection-the Managua Ground Water System as an example. Ground Water, v. 37, no. 2, p. 204-213.

Katz, B.G., Hornsby, H.D., Bohlke, J.K., Mokray, M.F., 1999, Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwanee River Basin, Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4252. 54 p.

Kellogg, R.L., Wallace, S., Alt, K., and Goss, D.W., 1997, Potential priority watersheds for protection of water quality from nonpoint sources related to agriculture: Poster Presentation at the 52nd Annual SWCS Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 22-25, 1997, Accessed December 2000 at URL

Kim, Y.J., and Hamm, S., 1999, Assessment of the potential for ground water contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea: Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 227-235.

Kolpin, D.W., Kalkhoff, S.J., Goolsby, D.A., Sneck-Fahrer, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1997, Occurrence of selected herbicides and herbicide degradation products in Iowa's ground water, 1995. Ground Water, v. 35, no. 4, p. 679-688.

Koterba, M.T., Banks, W.S.L., and Shedlock, R.J., 1993, Pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula. Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 22, no. 3, p. 500-518.

LeBlanc, D.R., Garabedian, S.P., Hess, K.M., Gelhar, L.W., Quadri, R.D., Stollenwerk, K.G., and Wood, W.W., 1991, Large-scale natural gradient tracer test in sand and gravel, Cape Cod, Massachusetts – 1. Experimental design and observed tracer movement. Water Resources Research, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 895-910.

Loague, K., Bernknopf, R.L., Green, R.E., and Giambelluca, T.W., 1996, Uncertainty of groundwater vulnerability assessments for agricultural regions in Hawaii: Review. Journal of Environmental Quality 25, p. 475-490

Lobo-Ferreira, J.P., and Oliveira, M.M., 1997, DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping of Portugal: Proceedings from the 27th Congress of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, San Francisco, USA, Aug. 10-15, p. 132-137, Accessed December 2000 at

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Lynch, S.D., Reynders, A.G., and Schulze, R.E., 1997, A DRASTIC approach to ground water vulnerability in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, v. 93, no. 2, p. 59-60.

Masterson, J.P., and Walter, D.A., 2000, Delineation of ground-water recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts. U.S. Geological survey Water Resources Investigations Report 00-4000, 1 plate.

Masterson, J.P., Walter, D.A., and LeBlanc, D.R., 1998, Delineation of contributing areas to selected public-supply wells, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts. U.S. Geological survey Water Resources Investigations Report 98-4237, 45 p.

Melloul, M., and Collin, M., 1998, A proposed index for aquifer water-quality assessment: the case of Israel's Sharon region: Journal of Environmental Management, v. 54, no. 2, p. 131-142.

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Morgan, L., 1998, Draft interim report on PATRIOT trial run for the State of Washington Interagency Ground-water Committee, Aquifer Vulnerability Subcommittee: Washington State Department of Ecology, Water Quality Program, Watershed Management Section, Olympia, WA, 17 p., 7 appendices.

Mueller, T.C., 1994, Comparison of PRZM computer model predictions with field lysimeter data for dichlorprop and bentazon leaching. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, v. A29, no. 6, p. 1183-1195.

Mueller, D.K., Ruddy, B.C., and Battaglin, W.A.,1997, Logistic model of nitrate in streams of the upper-midwestern United States. Journal of Environmental Quality v. 26, no. 5, p. 1223-1230.

National Research Council, 1993, Ground water vulnerability assessment, contamination potential under conditions of uncertainty: National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 210 p. Accessed December 2000 at URL

Niccoli, W.L., Loftis, J.C., Durnford, D.S., and Butters, G., 1989, Potential pesticide transport in Colorado agriculture; a model comparison: Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, Fort Collins, Completion Report No. 156, 96 p.

Nolan, B.T., Hitt, K.J., Ruddy, B.C., 2002, Probability of nitrate contamination of recently recharged groundwaters in the conterminous United States. Environmental Science and Technology, v. 36 n. 10, p. 2138 - 2145.

Nolan, B.T., 1998, Modeling approaches for assessing the risk of nonpoint-source contamination of ground water. U.S. Geolgical Survey Open-File Report 98-531. 15 p.

Nolan, B.T., Ruddy, B.C., Hitt, K.J., and Helsel, D.R., 1998, A National look at nitrate contamination of ground water: Water Conditioning and Purification, v. 39, no. 12, pages 76-79, Accessed December 2000 at URL

Nolan, B.T., Ruddy, B.C., Hitt, K.J, and Helsel, D.R., 1997, Risk of nitrate in groundwaters of the United States - a national perspective. Environmental Science and Technology v. 31, no. 8, p. 2229-2236.

Perry, C.A., 1991, Observed and simulated distribution of selected herbicides in silty loam, sandy loam, and clay soil profiles near Topeka, Kansas, 1986-88. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4017, 61 p.

Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., McConnell, J.B., Drenkard, S., Schlosser, P., and Michel, R.L., 1998, Flow of river water into a Karstic limestone aquifer. 1. Tracing the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the Upper Floridan Aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia. Applied Geochemistry, v. 13, no. 8, p. 995-1015.

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Pollock, D.W., 1994, User's guide for MODPATH/MODPATH-PLOT, version 3: A particle tracking post processing package for MODFLOW, the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference ground-water-flow model. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-464, 249 p.

Rao, P.S.C., and Alley, W.M., 1993, Pesticides: in Regional Ground-Water Quality (W.M. Alley, editor): Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, p. 345-377.

Regional Groundwater Center, 1995, Groundwater vulnerability study for Tyrone Township, Livingston County, Michigan. Regional Groundwater Center, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, Michigan. Accessed December 2000 at URL

Reilly, T.E., 1993, Analysis of ground-water systems in freshwater-saltwater environments: in Regional Ground-Water Quality (W.M. Alley, editor): Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, p. 443-469.

Reilly, T. E., and Pollock, D. W., 1993, Factors affecting areas contributing recharge to wells in shallow aquifers: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2412, 21 p.

Reilly, T.E., Plummer, L.N., Phillips, P.J., Busenberg, E., 1994, The use of simulation and multiple environmental tracers to quantify ground-water flow in a shallow aquifer. Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 2, pp. 421-433.

Reilly, T.E., 2001, System and boundary conceptualization in ground-water-flow simulation. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey Book 3, Applications of Hydraulics, Chapter B8, 30 p.

Rosen, L., 1994, A study of the DRASTIC methodology with emphasis on Swedish conditions: Ground Water, v. 32, no. 2, p. 278-285.

Rowe, G.L., Dunkle Shapiro, S., Schlosser, P., 1999, Use of environmental tracers to evaluate ground-water age and water-quality trends in a buried-valley aquifer, Dayton area, Southwestern, Ohio. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4113. 81 p.

Rupert, M.G., 1998, Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate in ground water of the Idaho part of the upper Snake River Basin. U.S.Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4203. 27 p.
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