Ground Water and Surface Water A Single Resource--USGS Circular 1139
Effects of the Removal of Flood-Plain Vegetation on the Interaction of Ground Water and Surface WaterIn low-lying areas where the water table is close to land surface, such as in flood plains, transpiration directly from ground water can reduce ground-water discharge to surface water and can even cause surface water to recharge ground water (see Figure 7). This process has attracted particular attention in arid areas, where transpiration by phreatophytes on flood plains of western rivers can have a significant effect on streamflows. To assess this effect, a study was done on transpiration by phreatophytes along a reach of the Gila River upstream from San Carlos Reservoir in Arizona. During the first few years of the 10-year study, the natural hydrologic system was monitored using observation wells, streamflow gages, and meteorological instruments. Following this initial monitoring period, the phreatophytes were removed from the flood plain and the effects on streamflow were evaluated. The average effect of vegetation removal over the entire study reach was that the Gila River changed from a continually losing river for most years before clearing to a gaining stream during some months for most years following clearing. Specifically, average monthly values of gain or loss from the stream indicated that before clearing, the river lost water to ground water during all months for most years. After clearing, the river gained ground-water inflow during March through June and during September for most years (Figure R-1).
Figure R-1: Removal of phreatophytes from the flood plain along a losing reach of the Gila River in Arizona resulted in the river receiving ground-water inflow during some months of the year. (Modified from Culler, R.C., Hanson, R.L., Myrick, R.M., Turner, R.M., and Kipple, F.P., 1982, Evapotranspiration before and after clearing phreatophytes, Gila River flood plain, Graham County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Professional Paper 655-P.)