USGS Home Page



1 Murless, Dick, and Stallings, Constance, 1973, Hiker’s guide to the Smokies: San Francisco, Calif., Sierra Club Books, 375 p.

2 Tennessee Valley Authority, 1987, Tennessee Valley Authority handbook—Dams and reservoirs, Knoxville, Tenn., 265 p.

3 Brewer, Alberta, and Brewer, Carson, 1975, Valley so wild: Knoxville, Tenn., East Tennessee Historical Society, 382 p.

4 Hampson, P.S., 1995, National Water-Quality Assessment Program - the Upper Tennessee River Basin: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS–150–95, 2 p.

5 U.S. Geological Survey, 1999, Downloading 1995 water-use data: accessed on October 20, 2000, at

6 National Weather Service, 2000, East Tennessee climatological data, Monthly climate data for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Tri-Cities: accessed on October 20, 2000, at

7 Zurawski, Ann, 1978, Summary appraisals of the Nation’s ground-water resources—Tennessee Region: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 813–L, 35 p.

8 Master, L.L., Flack, S.R., and Stein, B.A., eds., 1998, Rivers of life—critical watersheds for protecting freshwater biodiversity: Arlington, Va., The Nature Conservancy, 71 p.

9 State of Tennessee, 1999, Rules of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Chapter 1200–4–3, General Water Quality Criteria, 25 p.

10 State of Tennessee, 1998, Final 1998 303(d) list for the State of Tennessee: accessed on October 20, 2000, at

11 Yates, M.V., and Yates, S.R., 1993, Pathogens, in Alley, W.M., ed., Regional ground-water quality: New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, p. 383–404.

12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986, Ambient water-quality criteria for bacteria—1986: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 44015–84–002, 18 p.

13 U.S. Geological Survey, 1999, The quality of our Nation’s waters —Nutrients and pesticides: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225, 82 p.

14 Helsel, D.R., 1993, Hydrology of stream quality—Statistical analysis of water-quality data, in National Water Summary 1990–91—Hydrologic events and stream-water quality: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2400, p. 93–100.

15 Treece, M.W., Jr., and Johnson, G.C., 1997, Nitrogen in streams of the Upper Tennessee River Basin, 1970–93, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97–117, 4 p.

16 Johnson, G.C., and Treece, M.W., Jr.,1998, Phosphorus in streams of the Upper Tennessee River Basin, 1970–93, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98–532, 6 p.

17 Tennessee Valley Authority, 1991, Reservoir vital signs monitoring—1990, physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediment: Tennessee Valley Authority TVA/WR/WQ–91/10, 142 p.

18 Thelin, G.P., 1999, County-level pesticide use estimates (1991–1993, 1995) in the conterminous United States (metadata): U.S. Geological Survey, accessed on October 20, 2000, at

19 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999, National recommended water quality criteria—Correction: EPA 822–Z—99–001, 26 p. accessed on October 20, 2000, at (

20 Environment Canada, 1999, Canadian sediment quality guidelines: accessed on October 20, 2000, at (

21 Milligan, J.D., and Ruane, R.J., 1978, Analysis of mercury data collected from the North Fork of the Holston River: Tennessee Valley Authority, Division of Environmental Planning, TVA/EP–78112, 32 p.

22 Seivard, L.D., Stilwell, D.A., Rice, Stephen O., and Seeley, K.R., 1993, Geographic distribution of mercury in asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea, from the North Fork Holston River, Virginia: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Contaminants Division, 16 p.

23 State of Tennessee, 1999, Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, DOE Oversight Division: Status report to the public, 72 p.

24 U.S. Department of Energy, 2000, Y-12 Mercury Task Force files—A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors: accessed on October 20, 2000, at

25 Olsen, C.R., Larsen,I.L., Lowry, P.D., Moriones, C.R., Ford, C.J.,Deerstone, K.C.,Turner, R.R., Kimmel, B.L., and Brandt, C.C., 1992, Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division Publication 3471.

26 U.S. Geological Survey, 1996, The Ocoee River story: accessed on October 20, 2000, at

27 Bartlett, R.A., 1995, Troubled waters—Champion International and the Pigeon River controversy: Knoxville, Tennessee, University of Tennessee Press, 348 p.

28 Swartz, R.C., 1999, Consensus sediment quality guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures: Environmental Toxiology and Chemistry, v. 18, no. 4, p. 780–787.

29 Ahlstedt, S.A. and Tuberville, J.D., 1997, Quantitative reassessment of the freshwater mussel fauna in the Clinch and Powell Rivers, Tennessee and Virginia, in Cummings, K.S., Buchanan, A.C., Mayer, C.A., and Naimo, T.J., eds., Conservation and management of freshwater mussels II, Proceedings of a Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee symposium, October 16–18, 1995, St.Louis, Mo., p. 71–77.

30 State of Tennessee, 2000, Fish kill report database: Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

31 State of North Carolina, 2000, North Carolina Division of Water Quality 2000 Fish kill event update: accessed on October 20, 2000, at

32 Parmalee, P.W. and Bogan, A.E., 1998, The freshwater mussels of Tennessee: Knoxville, Tenn., University of Tennessee Press, 328 p.

33 The Nature Conservancy, 1993, Clinch River Valley Bioreserve, Strategic Plan: The Nature Conservancy, Abingdon, Va., 135 p.

34 Gilliom, R.J., Alley, W.M., and Gurtz, M.E., 1995, Design of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Occurrence and distribution of water-quality conditions: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1112, 33 p.

Table of Contents || Previous Section || Next Section || Glossary

U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1205

Suggested citation:

Hampson, P.S., Treece, M.W. Jr., Johnson, G.C., Ahlstedt, S.A., and Connell, J.F., 2000, Water Quality in the Upper Tennessee River Basin, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia 1994–98: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1205, 32 p., on-line at

FirstGov button  Take Pride in America button