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STUDY UNIT DESIGN


Map showing GROUND-WATER SAMPLING, SURFACE-WATER AND AQUATIC-BIOLOGY SAMPLING

 

Study component
(Type of site)

Objectives

Brief description and water-quality parameters

Number
of sites

Sampling frequency during water year

Historical
data
available

SURFACE WATER

Bottom- sediment survey (BFS)

Determine presence of potentially toxic compounds in sediment at selected sites

Sample the depositional zone for pesticides, other synthetic organic compounds, and trace elements at water-chemistry sites

7

1
(1996)

some

Water-chemistry
sites (BFS)

Describe concentrations and loads of major ions and nutrients at selected sites

Sample near-continuous streamflow sites for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, and suspended sediment

7

2-6 in 1996
12-31 in 1997
12 in 1998

data at some sites

Cooperative sampling program (BFS)

Assess the influence of sampling method and location on water-quality data

Sample water-chemistry sites on the same day as the SFWMD using both USGS methods and SFWMD methods

5

2-6 in 1996
12-31 in 1997
12 in 1998

none

Storm sampling (BFS)

Assess effects of runoff during high-flow conditions on surface-water quality

Sample water-chemistry sites during high-flow conditions for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, and suspended sediment

variable

variable
(1997 and
1998)

some

Nutrient/ pesticide
synoptic studies

Determine the concentration of nutrients and pesticides across southern end of Study Unit during high and low flow

Sample sites along the Tamiami Trail Canal during low flow (June) and high flow (August) for major ions, mercury, nutrients, organic carbon, and pesticides

30

3
(Aug. 1996,
June and August 1997)

limited

Process studies

Describe processes controlling the degradation and biological availability of pesticides

Deploy and collect semipermeable membrane devices at selected sites. Collect water and bottom-sediment samples

variable

4
(1997-98)

undeter-mined

Intensive pesticide
sampling (IFS)

Determine seasonal variation in the occurrence and concentrations of nutrients and pesticides at water-chemistry sites

Sample water-chemistry sites that are located in specified agricultural land-use areas (citrus, sugarcane, and vegetables) for nutrients and pesticides

3

2 in 1996;
weekly/biweekly
in 1997;
monthly in 1998

some

GROUND WATER

Urban land-use survey

Describe water quality in a residential and light commercial land-use area in a shallow aquifer susceptible to contamination

Sample monitoring wells for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, radio-nuclides, trace elements, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

38 wells

1
(1997)

some

Ground-water and surface-water synoptic survey

Determine which water-quality constituents are transported through shallow ground water into surface water in an agricultural land-use area

Sample shallow wells and surface-water sites for major ions, nutrients, pesticides, and VOCs before and during a surface-water release in a canal that drains agricultural land

7 wells;
9
surface-water sites

1-5
(1997)

none

Agricultural land-use survey

Describe the effects of citrus land use on water quality in a shallow aquifer.

Sample new wells for major ions, nutrients, pesticides, radionuclides, and trace elements

30 wells

1
(1998)

some

Study-unit survey (public supply)

Describe overall water quality in the Biscayne aquifer, which is used for drinking-water supply

Sample existing wells for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, radio-nuclides, trace elements, and VOCs

30 wells

1
(1998)

some

AQUATIC BIOLOGY

Contaminants
in fish tissue

Determine the presence of
contaminants that can
accumulate in fish tissue

Collect largemouth bass and Florida gar at a large number of sites. Sample composites of whole fish for organic compounds and fish livers for trace elements

15

1
(1996)

limited

Sediment
toxicity testing

Evaluate potential toxicity of bed sediment at the water-chemistry sites

Collect bed-sediment samples and evaluate their potential toxicity by using ASTM methods and Hyallela azteca

7

1
(1996)

none

Aquatic biology

Assess biological communities and stream habitat at the Basic Fixed Sites

Quantitatively sample fish, macroinvertebrates, and algae near water-chemistry sites. Quantitatively describe stream habitat for these organisms

7

3
(1 per year during 1996-98)

limited

Algae synoptic studies

Determine the influence of nutrients on the algal community along a nutrient gradient in the southern part of the basin

Collect algae using artificial substrate samplers at sites across the Tamiami Trail Canal

10-13

3
(June, August, November, 1997)

none

 

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U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1207

Suggested citation:

McPherson, B.F., Miller, R.L., Haag, K.H., and Bradner, Anne, 2000, Water Quality in Southern Florida Florida,1996–98: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1207, 32 p., on-line at https://pubs.water.usgs.gov/circ1207/

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