U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 346
The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, that propagates through the water and sediment column. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor or sediment layers beneath the lake bottom), detected by the receiver (hydrophone streamer), and recorded by a PC-based seismic acquisition system. This process is repeated at timed intervals (for example, 0.5 s) and recorded for specific intervals of time (for example, 100 ms). In this way, a 2-D vertical image of the shallow geologic structure beneath the ship track is produced.
An ORE GeoPulse power supply provided 105 Joules per shot. Reflected energy was received by an Innovative Transducers, Inc. (ITI) ST-5 streamer and recorded by Delph Seismic acquisition software. The streamer contains 10 hydrophones evenly spaced every 0.610 m. For all lines, phones 5 - 8 were used. The streamer was directly behind the research vessel positioned parallel to the boomer sled and laterally separated from it by about 4 m. Refer to figure 1 included with this archive for a diagram of the acquisition geometry. The sample frequency of the data was 16 kHz, and record length was 100 ms. The shot spacing was highly variable, however, based on survey speeds of 2 knots and a shot rate of every 0.5 s, shot spacing was about 0.514 m.
The unprocessed seismic data are stored in SEG-Y, integer, Motorola format, which is a standard digital format that can be read and manipulated by most seismic processing software packages (Barry and others, 1975). The SEG-Y formatted trace files have a .tra extension. Additional recording parameters for each trace file can also be found in the .par file associated with each .tra file. However, the .par files included here are only needed to process or display the data with Delph Seismic software. Also provided are example Seismic Unix scripts that allow the user to strip off navigation fixes from the SEG-Y headers, along with a fix for every 500 shots, and produce a filtered and gained GIF image of each profile. NOTE: Navigation data were recorded to 2 different sections of the SEG-Y trace headers, creating 2 navigation data sets. For details, see the Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report under the Data Quality Information section below.