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Data Series 466

In cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division

Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007–08

By Stanley Baldys III

Abstract

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The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007–September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the “Texas Surface Water Quality Standards” for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter. Median specific conductance measurements at sites ranged from 1,120 microsiemens per centimeter at site 8 in the Washita arm to 2,100 microsiemens per centimeter in the Red River arm. The spatial distribution of specific conductance in Lake Texoma was similar to that of bromide and chloride, with larger specific conductance values in the Red River arm compared to those in the Washita arm.

Revised January 13, 2010

First posted September 17, 2009

For additional information contact:

Director, Texas Water Science Center
U.S. Geological Survey
8027 Exchange Drive
Austin, TX 78754-4733

http://tx.usgs.gov/

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Suggested citation:

Baldys, Stanley, III, 2009, Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations, and specific conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007–08: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 466, 30 p.



Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Bromide

Chloride

Sulfate

Specific Conductance

Summary

References Cited

Appendix 1. Analytical Results for Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and for Specific Conductance for all Water-Quality Samples Collected at Lake Texoma in Texas and Oklahoma, 2007–08


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