U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 526
The archived trace data are in standard SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.
The Chirp system uses a signal of continuously varying frequency. The towfish is a sound source and receiver, which is typically towed 1 - 2 m below the sea surface. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor or sediment layers beneath the seafloor), detected by a receiver, and recorded by a PC-based sub-bottom acquisition system. This process is repeated at timed intervals (for example, 0.125 s) and recorded for specific intervals of time (for example, 50 ms). In this way, a two-dimensional vertical image of the shallow geologic structure beneath the ship track is produced.
The seismic source employed for Chirp data collection, during this cruise, consisted of an EdgeTech SB-512i towfish running Triton Imaging SB Logger (FSSB) version 1.6.500.9 acquisition software that was towed about 16.5 m behind the GPS antenna. The frequency range was 1 - 10 kHz (shallow) and 0.5 - 7.2 kHz (deep). Sample frequency of the data was 21 kHz, and record length was approximately 50 ms. Shot spacing was about 0.386 - 0.514 m.
For each recorded shot of the Chirp data, three channels of trace data are collected. Channel 2 is the "real," or in-phase component of the signal, channel 1 is the "imaginary," or quadrature component of the signal, and channel 0 is the "envelope," or product of channels 1 and 2. Only channel 0 was used to produce the profiles presented here. However, all channels are included in the SEG-Y data files.
The unprocessed sub-bottom data are stored in SEG-Y, integer, IBM format, which is a standard digital format that can be read and manipulated by most sub-bottom processing software packages (Barry and others, 1975). The SEG-Y formatted trace files have a .sgy extension. Also provided are example Seismic Unix scripts that allow the user to strip off navigation fixes from the SEG-Y headers, along with a fix for every 1,000 shots, and produce a gained GIF image of each profile.
All the processed SEG-Y data were then exported to CTI SonarWeb software to produce an interactive, geospatial version of each profile that allows the user to obtain a geographic location and depth for a cursor position on the profile. Refer to the Supplemental Information section above for details on how to use the geospatial profiles.