During the Fugro Pelagos and CSUMB mapping missions, an Applanix Position and Motion Compensation System for Marine Vessels (POS/MV, 320, v4) was used to accurately position the vessels during data collection, and it also accounted for vessels' motion such as heave, pitch, and roll (position accuracy, ±2 m; pitch, roll, and heading accuracy, ±0.02; heave accuracy, ±5%, or 5 cm). KGPS altitude data (Fugro Pelagos, StarFix HP & XP units; CSUMB, NavCom 2050) were used to account for tide cycle fluctuations and sound velocity profiles were collected with an Applied Microsystems SVPlus sound velocimeter. Soundings were corrected for vessel motion using the Applanix POS/MV data, for variations in water-column sound velocity using the AM SVPlus data, and for variations in water height (tides) using vertical-position data from the KGPS receivers.
The multibeam backscatter data then were processed using Geocoder (Fugro Pelagos Modified Test Release 16) or Geocoder within Caris HIPS and SIPS. Within Geocoder, the backscatter intensities were radiometrically corrected (including despeckling and angle-varying gain adjustments), and the position of each acoustic sample was geometrically corrected for slant range. This processed imagery was stored as Georeferenced, Backscatter Rasters (GeoBARs). After GeoBARs were created for each line, they were mosaicked into 1m resolution images. Overlap between parallel lines was resolved using a priority table based on the distance of each sample from the ship track, with samples closest to- and furthest from- the ship track given the lowest priority. An anti-aliasing algorithm was also applied. The SWATHPlus backscatter data were processed using SXPTools v 2.0 (David Finlayson, USGS) and SEA Grid Processor v 3.02.19.0. SXPTools is a collection of command line programs that are used to enhance the quality of SEA SWATHplus interferometric sidescan sonar data. The programs are primarily focused on enhancing the backscatter quality, but there is some benefit to the bathymetry as well. The SXPTools sxpegn command was used to equalize the backscatter amplitude, and the sxpmagic command was used to help fill gaps and remove artifacts near nadir. After processing with SXPTools, lines were imported into Grid Processor and mosaicked into a 1m resolution image georeferenced to UTM Zone 10 N, NAD_83(CORS96). The mosaic image for each survey block was exported as a GeoJpeg from Grid Processor and converted to GeoTiff using Adobe Photoshop or GIMP. In some cases memory limitations in Grid Processor required tiling a block mosaic into 2 or more sub-mosaics.