Fact Sheet 084–03

August 2003

Sugar Creek Watershed Selected for a National Water-Quality Study

The PDF for the report is 858 kb

Table of Contents


The Sugar Creek watershed in Indiana is one of five watersheds selected by ...

At a typical study site, several methods are used to collect water and chem...


Data Collection in the Sugar Creek Watershed, 2003–2004

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying five watersheds across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices (AMPs) affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape (soil type, topography, geology), and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The study approach is similar in each watershed so that we can compare and contrast the results and more accurately predict conditions in other agricultural settings.

Map of study area.

The Sugar Creek watershed in Indiana is one of five watersheds selected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for a special study of agricultural chemicals and water quality.

Study objectives

Why study the Sugar Creek watershed?

Sugar Creek and the other four watersheds represent nationally important agricultural settings (chemical use, crops, and AMPs) and natural settings (climate, geology, topography, and soils). Sugar Creek, which is part of the White River watershed, is representative of corn and soybean row cropping typical in the Midwest.

Other features of the watershed that are relevant to this study:

Cross section of typical study site.

At a typical study site, several methods are used to collect water and chemical samples from the air, soil, surface water, and ground water. After being applied to the land surface, agricultural chemicals can move upward into the atmosphere, downward through the soil to shallow ground water and underlying aquifers, eventually discharging to streams, or run off across the land into streams, eventually moving downstream to reservoirs and coastal waters. This process can take days, weeks, or even decades if water moves underground through the ground-water system.

Data Collection in the Sugar Creek Watershed, 2003–2004

What kind of data Why the data are collected How often
Meteorological data, including rainfall, wind speed, solar radiation, and air temperature. Soil temperature and moisture To determine amount of precipitation and estimate amount that reaches the water table and how much is lost to evapotranspiration Continuously for 2 years
Streamflow at two gaging stations: Leary Weber Ditch at Mohawk, IN, and Sugar Creek at New Palestine, IN To interpret water-quality data correctly (the amount of water in streams affects chemical concentrations) Continuously since 2001 at Leary Weber, since 1967 at Sugar Creek (real-time data for both available at )
Quality of stream water, runoff water, rain water, tile drain water1 To quantify the transport and behavior of natural and agricultural chemicals Several times a year (>14 samples) for 2 years, with intensive sampling during application season
Ground-water levels in wells To determine direction of ground-water flow, which affects transport of chemicals At least quarterly in some wells, continuously in others for at least 1 year
Quality of ground water, soil water, and shallow water in and around streambed/riparian zone1 To quantify the transport and behavior of natural and agricultural chemicals At least quarterly for 1 year
Quality of sediment in streambed and soils in agricultural fields1 To quantify the storage, behavior, and transport of water and chemicals in the soils and sediment At least once during study

1In this study, water-quality and sediment-quality data include concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), pesticides and pesticide breakdown products, and natural constituents and properties, including major ions (calcium, magnesium, chloride, etc.), organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, and temperature.

We would like to thank

Purdue University, Depts. of Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, and Environmental Engineering

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Indiana State and Hancock County offices

Ohio State University, College of Engineering

For more information

Nancy Baker, Lead Scientist, Sugar Creek study (317) 290-3333,

Paul Capel, Team Leader, National study (612) 625-3082,

NAWQA Program


Fenelon, Joseph M., 1998, Water Quality in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1992-96, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1150.

We appreciate your help

We are working with local growers and land owners to gain access to study sites. We also need information about the watershed and about current as well as historical agricultural management practices—past practices also affect concentrations of agricultural chemicals in ground and surface water.

We will report the findings of the study in public meetings and in publications. The findings will provide information that will be useful for improving agricultural management locally and nationally, and will guide future studies in other watersheds.

The USGS provides reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

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