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Open-File Report 85-0391

Mineral Deposit Models: Theory and Practice

By Steve Ludington, Paul B. Barton, Jr., and Kathleen M. Johnson

Version 1.0

This publication is a modified version of a paper presented at the First Annual McKelvey Forum on Energy and Mineral Resources (February 6, 1985).
Included are a discussion of how mineral deposit models are defined, the different types of models, and how models are used, especially by the U.S. Geological Survey in making mineral resource assessments.

Originally published in 1985, this report is presented here in Portable Document Format. Adobe Acrobat Reader® is required to view it. If you already have Acrobat Reader® installed on your computer, click here to access the text (1,805 kB).

For more information about this report contact William D. Heran at

Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Acrobat Reader, free of charge or go to for free tools that allow visually impaired users to read PDF files.

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