Please read this document first before viewing the contents of this CD-ROM.



This compact disc (CD) contains the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03-315, titled "Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas," by Franklin T. Heitmuller and Brian D. Reece.

The database on this CD was developed, as part of a cooperative effort between the USGS and the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), to provide interested parties and the general public with a verified source of data regarding springs and spring flow in Texas. Site information and spring flow data were derived from the USGS, TWDB, and Capitol Environmental Services (CES). The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) provided additional support for the release of Version 1.2.

Disc Information


The overall layout of the CD is as follows:


this file


spring_gdb.mdb - ESRI ArcGIS 8.3 geodatabase of spring information, alternate spring names, alternate spring identification numbers, and spring flow measurements


spring.mdb - Microsoft Access 2000 database of spring information, alternate spring names, alternate spring identification numbers, and spring flow measurements


Datasets in this directory are non-proprietary alternatives to the geodatabase and Microsoft Access 2000 database. The geodatabase point feature class is provided as a shapefile. A shapefile is a digital vector (non-topological) format for storing geometric location and attribute information. The shapefile format is created by ESRI ArcGIS and can be used by ArcGIS and other widely used GIS software. Additionally, all database tables are provided as tab-delimited ASCII text and .dbf files, and are no different in attribute content than the database tables.


spr_disc.dbf - Table of spring flow measurements
spr_id_alt.dbf - Table of alternate spring identification numbers
spr_nm_alt.dbf - Table of alternate spring names
spring.dbf - Table of spring site information (component of shapefile)
spring.prj - component of shapefile
spring.sbn - component of shapefile
spring.sbx - component of shapefile
spring.shp - component of shapefile
spring.shx - component of shapefile


Microsoft Windows encoded
spring.txt - ASCII text file of spring site information
spring_disc.txt - ASCII text file of spring flow measurements
spring_id_alt.txt - ASCII text file of alternate spring
identification numbers
spring_nm_alt.txt - ASCII text file of alternate spring names


All data users and browsers should refer to the metadata for explanation of codes, process steps, and other necessary information regarding the creation and appropriate use of the database. Data from this report should never be shared without the metadata. Metadata is provided in HTML format.spring_disc_metadata.htm - Metadata for spring flow measurement table spring_id_alt_metadata.htm - Metadata for alternate spring identification number table spring_metadata.htm - Metadata for spring site information table and geodatabase feature class spring_nm_alt_metadata.htm - Metadata for alternate spring name table

Spatial reference information



Latitude_Resolution: 0.000000

Longitude_Resolution: 0.000000

Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees


Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983

Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80

Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000

Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Spring(s) - Springs are naturally occurring features that convey excess ground water to the land surface; they represent a transition from ground water to surface water. Water issues through one opening, multiple openings, or numerous seeps in the rock or soil.

Spring flow - Equivalent to discharge, or the volume of water flowing past a given cross section over a given duration. Universally provided in gallons per minute (gpm) in this report. Some spring flow measurements originally were in cubic feet per second (cfs), but these values were converted.

Spring Names
Spring names are provided in the site information table, and alternate spring names are provided in the table of alternate spring names. The name in the site information table is interpreted to be the most widely published and (or) used name for the spring(s). All initial spring names were imported from digital and hard-copy data sources. Some were changed according to Brune (1975), Brune (1981), or USGS 7.5-minute digital raster graphics (DRGs). Many springs do not have name information.

Brune, Gunnar, 1975, Major and historical springs of Texas: Texas Water Development Board Report 189, 95 p.

______1981, Springs of Texas, volume 1: Fort Worth, Tex., Branch-Smith, Inc., 566 p.


multiply by to obtain
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.002228 cubic feet per second (cfs)

CES - Capitol Environmental Services
DRG - digital raster graphic
ESRI - Environmental Systems Research Institute
GIS - geographic information system
gpm - gallons per minute
TWDB - Texas Water Development Board
TPWD - Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
USGS - U.S. Geological Survey

The authors thank Raymond M. Slade, former Surface Water Specialist, USGS, for the original development of the project and for his guidance and assistance during its course.

The authors also thank Helen C. Besse, CES, for contributing spring and spring flow information.

The authors thank Deanna R. Eames, SCEP (Hydrotech), USGS, for her assistance with the creation of the database.

Disclaimer information
This CD was prepared by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof.

Although all data and software published on this CD have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS, as to the accuracy of the data and related materials and (or)the functioning of the software. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and the USGS in the use of these data, software, or related materials assumes no responsibility.

For additional information, contact:

District Chief
U.S. Geological Survey
8027 Exchange Drive
Austin, Texas 78754-4733