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Coastal & Marine Geology Program > Center for Coastal & Watershed Studies > OFR 2005-1326

The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

USGS Open File Report 2005-1326

by: Tara L. Miller, Robert A. Morton, Asbury H. Sallenger

GIS Data Layers


The following references discuss shoreline change pertaining to the states along the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast or methods for investigating shoreline change. They are all cited in our full report at

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


  • Anders, F. J., Reed, D. W., and Meisburger, E. P., 1990, Shoreline movements Report 2, Tybee Island, Georgia to Cape Fear, North Carolina, 1851-1983: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Technical Report CERC 83-1, 147 pp.
  • Anders, F. J., and Byrnes, M. R., 1991, Accuracy of shoreline change rates as determined from maps and aerial photographs: Shore and Beach, v. 59, p. 17-26.


  • Barton, C. C., Dismukes, J. S., and Morton, R. A., 2003, Complexity analysis of the change in shoreline position at Duck, NC: Proceedings Coastal Sediments '03, 7 p.
  • Blackwelder, B. W., MacIntyre, I. G., and Pilkey, O. H., 1982, Geology of continental shelf, Onslow Bay, North Carolina, as revealed by submarine outcrops: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, v. 66, p. 44-56.
  • Brown, P. J., 1977, Variation in south Carolina coastal morphology, in Nummedal, D., ed., Beaches and barriers of the central South Carolina coast: Field trip guidebook for Coastal Sediments '77 meeting, Charleston S.C., p. 11-24.


  • Chappell, J., Omura, A., Esat, T., McCulloch, M., Padolfi, J., Ota, Y., and Pillans, B., 1996, Reconciliation of late Quaternary sea levels derived from coral terraces at Huon Peninsula with deep sea oxygen isotope records: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 141, p. 227-236.
  • Clark, R., 1986, The impact of Hurricane Elena and tropical storm Juan on coastal construction in Florida: Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of Beaches and Shores, Report 85-3, 140 p.
  • Clark, R., 1990, Coastal land loss in Florida: Transactions Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 40, p. 117.
  • Clark, R., 1992, Beach conditions in Florida: Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of Beaches and Shores, Technical Memorandum 89-1, 200 p.
  • Clayton, T. D., Taylor, L. A. Jr., Cleary, W. J., Hosier, P. E., Graber, P. H. F., Neal, W. J., and Pilkey, O. H. Sr., 1992, Living with the Georgia shore: Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 188 p.
  • Crowell, M., and Leatherman, S. P., eds., 1999, Coastal erosion mapping and management: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 28, 196 p.
  • Crowell, M., Douglas, B. C., and Leatherman, S. P., 1997, On forecasting future U.S. shoreline positions: A test of algorithms: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 13, p. 1245-1255.
  • Crowell, M., Leatherman, S. P., and Buckley, M. K., 1991, Historical shoreline change; Error analysis and mapping accuracy: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 7, p. 839-852.


  • Daniels, R. C., and Huxford, R. H., 2001, An error assessment of vector data derived from scanned National Ocean Service topographic sheets: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 17, p. 611-619.
  • Davis, G. H., 1987, Land subsidence and sea level rise on the Atlantic coastal plain of the United States: Environmental Geology Water Science, v. 10, p. 67-80.
  • Dean, R. G., and O'Brian, M. P., 1987, Florida's east coast inlets: Shoreline effects and recommended action: Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department, University of Florida, Rept. 87/017, 100 p.
  • Dean, R. G., Cheng, J., and Malakar, S. B., 1998, Characteristics of the shoreline change along the sandy beaches of the state of Florida: An atlas: Florida Sea Grant Report UFL/COEL-98/015, variable pagination.
  • De Beaumont, L. E., 1845, Lecons de geologie practique: Septieme lecon, Bertrand Paris, p. 221-252.
  • Dolan, R., Anders, F., and Kimball, S., 1985, Coastal erosion and accretion, in National Atlas of the United Sates of America: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va.
  • Douglas, B. C., and Crowell, M., 2000, Long-term shoreline position prediction and error propagation: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 16, p. 145-152.


  • Everts, C. H., Battley, J. P., Jr., and Gibson, P. N., 1983, Shoreline movements Report 1, Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 1849-1980: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Technical Report CERC-83-1, 111 p.


  • Fisher, J. J., 1962, Geomorphic expression of former inlets along the Outer Banks of North Carolina: unpublished MS thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 120 p.
  • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2004, Hurricane Francis and Hurricane Jeanne: Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems, Tallahassee, FL., 88 p.


  • Gayes, P. T., Schwab, W. C, Driscoll, N. W., Morton, R. A., Baldwin, W. E., Denny, J. J., Wright, E. E., Harris, M. S., Katuna, M. P., and Putney, T. R., 2003, Sediment dispersal pathways and conceptual sediment budget for a sediment starved embayment: Long Bay, SC: Proceedings Coastal Sediments '03, 14 p.
  • Gilbert, G. K., 1885, The topographic features of lake shores: U.S. Geological Survey 5th Annual Rept., p. 69-123.
  • Gornitz, V., and Lebedeff, S., 1987, Global sea level changes during the last century, in Nummedal, D., Pilkey, O. H., and Howard, J. D., eds., Sea-level fluctuation and coastal evolution: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 41, p. 3-16.
  • Griffin, M. M., and Henry, V. J., 1984, Historical changes in the mean high water shoreline of Georgia: Georgia Geologic Survey Bulletin 98, 96 p.


  • Hayes, M. O., 1994, The Georgia Bight barrier system, in Davis, R. A., ed., Geology of Holocene Barrier Islands: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 233-304.
  • Hayes, M.O., Sexton, W.J., Colquhoun, D.J., Eckard, T.L., 1994, Evolution of the Santee/Pee Dee Delta complex, South Carolina, USA, in Kay, R., eds., Deltas of the World: Am. Soc. Civil Eng., New York, p. 54-64.
  • The Heinz Center, 2000, Evaluation of erosion hazards: The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, Washington, D.C., 203 p.
  • Hicks, S. D., 1968, Long-period variations in secular sea level trends; Shore and Beach, v. 36, p. 32-36.
  • Holdahl, S. R., and Morrison, N. L., 1974, Regional investigations of vertical crustal movements in the U.S. using precise relevelings and mareograph data: Tectonophysics, v. 23, p. 373-390.
  • Hoyt, J. H., 1967, Barrier island formation: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 78. p. 1125-1135.
  • Hoyt, J. H., and Henry, V. J., 1971, Origin of capes and shoals along the southeastern coast of the United States: Bull. Geological Society of America, v. 82, 59-66.


  • Krabill, W., Wright, C., Swift, R., Frederick, E., Manizade, S., Yungel, J., Martin, C., Sonntag, J., Duffy, M., Hulslander, W., and Brock, J., 2000. Airborne laser mapping of Assateague National Seashore Beach. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, v. 66, p. 65-71.


  • Langley, S. K., Alexander, C. R., Bush, D. M., and Jackson, C. W., 2003, Modernizing shoreline change analysis in Georgia using topographic survey sheets in a GIS environment: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 38, p. 168-177.
  • Lyles, S. D., Hickman L. E., Jr., Debaugh, H. A., Jr., 1988, Sea-level variations for the United States 1855-1986: U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA-NOS, Rockville Md., 182 p.
  • Lennon, G., Neal, W. J., Bush, D. M., Pilkey, O. H., Stutz, M., and Bullock, J., 1996, Living with the South Carolina shore: Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., and 241 p.


  • McGee, W. D., 1890, Encroachments of the sea: The Forum, v. 9, p. 437-449.
  • Meade, R. H., 1982, Sources, sinks, and storage of river sediment in the Atlantic drainage of the United States: Journal of Geology, v. 90, p. 235-252.
  • Moore, L. J., 2000, Shoreline mapping techniques: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 16, p. 111-124
  • Morton, R. A., 1991, Accurate shoreline mapping: past, present, and future: American Society of Civil Engineers, Coastal Sediments '91, v. 1, p. 997-1010.
  • Morton, R. A., 1996, Geoindicators of coastal wetlands and shorelines, in Berger, A. R., and Iams, W. J., eds., Geoindicators: Assessing rapid environmental changes in earth systems: A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 207-230.
  • Morton, R. A., 2002, Factors controlling storm impacts on coastal barriers and beaches - A preliminary basis for real-time forecasting: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, p. 486-501.
  • Morton, R. A., and Speed, F. M., 1998, Evaluation of shorelines and legal boundaries controlled by water levels on sandy beaches: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 14, p. 1373-1384.
  • Morton, R. A., Miller, T. L., and Moore, L. J., 2004, National assessment of shoreline change: Part 1: Historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2004-1043 (
  • Moslow, T. F., and Heron, S. D., 1994, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, in Davis, R. A., ed., Geology of Holocene Barrier Islands: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 47-74.


  • North Carolina Division of Coastal Management, 2004, Long-term average annual shoreline change study and setback factors updated through 1998: N.C. Department of Environment, and Natural Resources, Raleigh,
  • Nummedal, D., Oertel, G. F., Hubbard, D. K., and Hine, A. C., 1977, Tidal inlet variability - Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral: Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, Coastal Sediments '77, p. 543-562.


  • Pajak, M. J., and Leatherman, S. P., 2002, The high water line as shoreline indicator: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, p. 329-337.
  • Pilkey, O. H., and Clayton, T. D., 1990, Summary of beach replenishment experience on U.S. East coast barrier islands: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 5, p. 147-159.
  • Pilkey, O. H., Jr., Sharma, D. C., Wanless, H. R., Doyle, L. J., Pilkey, O.H., Sr., Neal, W.J., and Gruver, B. L., 1984, Living with the East Florida shore: Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 222 p.
  • Pilkey, O. H., Jr., Neal, W. J., Riggs, S. R., Webb, C. A., Bush, D. M., Pilkey, D. F., Bullock, J, and Cowan, B. A., 1998, The North Carolina shore and its barrier islands: Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 318 p.


  • Redfield, A. C., 1958, The influence of the continental shelf on the tides of the Atlantic coast of the United States: Journal of Marine Research, v. 17, p. 432-448.
  • Riggs, S. R., Cleary, W. J., and Snyder, S. W., 1995, Influence of inherited geologic framework on barrier shoreface morphology and dynamics: Marine Geology, v. 126, p. 213-234.
  • Riggs, S. R., and Ames, D. V., 2003, Drowning the North Carolina coast: sea-level rise and estuarine shoreline erosion: Report prepared for the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Coastal Management, Raleigh.
  • Ruggiero, P., Kaminsky, G. M., and Gelfenbaum, G., 2003, Linking proxy-based and datum-based shorelines on a high-energy coastline: Implications for shoreline change analyses: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 38, p. 57-82.


  • Sallenger, A. H., Krabill, W., Swift, R., Brock, J., List, J., Hansen, M., Holman, R. A., Manizade, S., Sontag, J., Meredith, A., Morgan, K., Yunkel, J. K., Frederick, E. and Stockdon, H., 2003. Evaluation of airborne scanning lidar for coastal change applications: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 19, p. 125-133.
  • Schwartz, M. L., 1971, The multiple causality of barrier islands: Journal of Geology, v. 79, p. 91-94.
  • Schwartz, R. K., and Musialowski, F. R., 1977, Nearshore disposal: Onshore sediment transport: Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, Coastal Sediments '77, p. 85-101.
  • Shalowitz, A. L., 1964, Shore and sea boundaries. Publication 10-1, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, 749 p.
  • Simpson, R. H., and Lawrence, M. B., 1971, Atlantic hurricane frequencies along the U.S. coastline: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS SR-581, 15 p.
  • Stauble, D. K., and Brumbaugh, R. W., 2003, An assessment of the nation's shorelines, USA: Shore and Beach, v. 71, p. 11-18.
  • Stockdon, H. F., Sallenger, A. H., List, J. H., and Holman, R. A., 2002, Estimation of shoreline position and change from airborne topographic lidar data. Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, p. 502-513.


  • Thieler, E. R., and Danforth, W. W., 1994, Historical shoreline mapping (1). Improving techniques and reducing positioning errors: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 10, p. 549-563.


  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1971, National shoreline study: Washington, D.C.


  • Valverde, H. R., Trembanis, A. C., and Pilkey, O. H., 1999, Summary of beach nourishment episodes on the U.S. East Coast barrier island: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 15, p. 1100-1118.


  • Weber, K. M., List, J. H., and Morgan, K. L. M., 2005, An operational mean high water datum for determination of shoreline position from topographic lidar data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file report 2005-1027.
  • White, W. A., Morton, R. A., Kerr, R. S., Kuenzi, W. D., and Brogden, W. B., 1978, Land and water resources, historical changes, and dune criticality, Mustang and North Padre Islands, Texas: The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 92, 46 p.
  • Wiegel, R.L., 1992. Dade County, Florida, beach nourishment and hurricane surge protection project: Shore and Beach, v. 60, p. 2-26.

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