USGS LOGO
Publication—Open-File Report

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Open-File Report 2005-1388


Water-Quality Data from Ground- and Surface-Water Sites near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) and non-CAFOs in the Shenandoah Valley and Eastern Shore of Virginia, January-February, 2004

U.S. Geological Survey

By: K. C. Rice, U.S. Geological Survey, M. M. Monti, Virginia Department of Health, and M. R. Ettinger, Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services

This report is available as a pdf.


Abstract

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) result from the consolidation of small farms with animals into larger operations, leading to a higher density of animals per unit of land on CAFOs than on small farms. The density of animals and subsequent concentration of animal wastes potentially can cause contamination of nearby ground and surface waters. This report summarizes water-quality data collected from agricultural sites in the Shenandoah Valley and Eastern Shore of Virginia. Five sites, three non-CAFO and two dairy-operation CAFO sites, were sampled in the Shenandoah Valley . Four sites, one non-CAFO and three poultry-operation CAFO sites were sampled on the Eastern Shore . All samples were collected during January and February 2004.

Water samples were analyzed for the following parameters and constituents: temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen; concentrations of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci; bacterial isolates of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp.; sensitivity to antibiotics of E. coli, enterococci, and Salmonella spp.; arsenic, cadmium, chromium3+, copper, nickel, and mercury; hardness, biological oxygen demand, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ortho-phosphate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon; and 45 dissolved organic compounds, which included a suite of antibiotic compounds. 

Data are presented in tables 5-21 and results of analyses of replicate samples are presented in tables 22-28. A summary of the data in tables 5-8 and 18-21 is included in the report.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Purpose and Scope

Site Selection and Numbering

Geohydrologic Units

Field Data-Collection Methods

Laboratory Analysis Methods

Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Results and Summary

Acknowledgements

References Cited


This report is available online in Portable Document Format (PDF). If you do not have the Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader, it is available for free download from Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Download the Report (PDF, 3.1MB).

Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Acrobat Reader 5.0 for Windows (English only), which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.



U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL:
Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
Last modified: Thursday, February 16 2006, 06:06:44 PM
FirstGov button  Take Pride in America button