Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

U.S. Geological Survey
Open-File Report 2007-1114
Version 1.0

Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, an Update: 2002-2006

By T. Elias and A.J. Sutton


photo of gas cloud coming out of volcano
Sun seen through fume cloud from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, viewed from Uwekahuna overlook at the summit of Kilauea (photo by J.D. Griggs, 10/21/85, JG5935).

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006.

During the period covered by this report, Kīlauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kīlauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975).

Text of the Report

Download this report as a 37-page PDF document (of2007-1114.pdf; 2.3 MB)

Data Tables

Tables 3 and 6 are provided here in ASCII and Excel formats so that other researchers can use these data:

of2007-1114_table3.txt - Table 3 as ASCII
of2007-1114_table3.xls - Table 3 as Excel
of2007-1114_table6.txt - Table 6 as ASCII
of2007-1114_table6.xls - Table 6 as Excel

For questions about the content of this report, contact Tamar Elias

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