Link to USGS home page.
Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

Application of Wind Fetch and Wave Models for Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Projects

U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2008–1200

By Jason Rohweder, James T. Rogala, Barry L. Johnson, Dennis Anderson, Steve Clark, Ferris Chamberlin, and Kip Runyon

ONLINE ONLY


This report is available below as a 43–page PDF for viewing and printing.

Report covers 4 and 1 and report covers 2 and 3 (each is 11” by 17” tabloid) also are available for viewing and printing.


Abstract

Models based upon coastal engineering equations have been developed to quantify wind fetch length and several physical wave characteristics including significant height, length, peak period, maximum orbital velocity, and shear stress. These models, developed using Environmental Systems Research Institute‚s ArcGIS 9.2 Geographic Information System platform, were used to quantify differences in proposed island construction designs for three Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Projects (HREPs) in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St. Paul District (Capoli Slough and Harpers Slough) and St. Louis District (Swan Lake). Weighted wind fetch was calculated using land cover data supplied by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) for each island design scenario for all three HREPs. Figures and graphs were created to depict the results of this analysis. The difference in weighted wind fetch from existing conditions to each potential future island design was calculated for Capoli and Harpers Slough HREPs. A simplistic method for calculating sediment suspension probability was also applied to the HREPs in the St. Paul District. This analysis involved determining the percentage of days that maximum orbital wave velocity calculated over the growing seasons of 2002–2007 exceeded a threshold value taken from the literature where fine unconsolidated sediments may become suspended. This analysis also evaluated the difference in sediment suspension probability from existing conditions to the potential island designs. Bathymetric data used in the analysis were collected from the LTRMP and wind direction and magnitude data were collected from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center.

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Toolbox Installation

Wind Fetch Model

Introduction

Methodology

Wind Fetch Model Validation

Two–Sample Permutation Test for Locations

Wave Model

Introduction

Assumptions and Model Limitations

Methodology

Adjusting Wind Speed Data

Deep Water Test

Significant Wave Height

Wave Length

Spectral Peak Wave Period

Maximum Orbital Wave Velocity

Shear Stress

St. Paul District Analyses

Study Areas

Capoli Slough Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project

Harpers Slough Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project

Weighted Wind Fetch Analysis

Land Raster Input Data

Wind Direction Input Data

Weighted Wind Fetch

Analysis Results

Discussion

Sediment Suspension Probability Analysis

Analysis Results

Discussion

St. Louis District Analysis

Study Area

Swan Lake Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project

Weighted Wind Fetch Analysis

Land Raster Input Data

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Sample Island Design

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sample Island Design

Wind Direction Input Data

Weighted Wind Fetch

Analysis Results

Discussion

Spatial Datasets Used in Analyses

Long Term Resource Monitoring Program 2000 Land Cover/Land Use Data for the Upper Mississippi River System

Originator

Abstract

Online Linkage

Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Bathymetric Data for the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers

Originator

Abstract

Online Linkage

Acknowledgments

References Cited

Figures

1–5. Screen shots showing:

  1. Windows Explorer view of extracted files.

  2. ArcToolbox view of wave tools.

  3. Windows dialog box for selecting Waves toolbox.

  4. Sample text file with fetch direction input data.

  5. Fetch model dialog window prompting user input.

       6. Diagram showing example depictions of wind fetch calculated using the different methods.

       7. Map showing sample wind fetch model results for Swan Lake Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement
           Project (HREP).

       8. Map showing wind fetch cell locations and prevailing wind directions used for model validation.

       9. Graph showing results for two–sample permutation test for locations.

      10. Screen shot showing wave model dialog window prompting user input.

      11. Screen shot showing sample text file depicting valid input values for wind data in wave model.

      12. Map showing visual depiction of Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability Program subareas used to
           calculate average water depth.

      13. Map showing sample wave model outputs for scenario 4, Capoli Slough HREP.

      14. Diagram depicting relationships of input and output parameters used within the wave model.

15–17. Maps showing:

   15. Location of Pool 9 Capoli Slough and Harpers Slough HREPs.

   16. Capoli Slough HREP with feature labels.

   17. Harpers Slough HREP with feature labels.

   18. Aerial photograph showing location of revised island addition to Harpers Slough HREP area.

   19. Sample copy of a National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data summary sheet.

   20. Graph showing breakdown of wind directions collected for La Crosse Municipal Airport site.

   21. Screen shot showing weighted sum dialog window example.

22–24. Maps showing:

   22. Weighted wind fetch results for the Capoli Slough HREP.

   23. Weighted wind fetch results for the Harpers Slough HREP.

   24. Difference in weighted wind fetch from the existing conditions management scenario to
   scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Capoli Slough HREP.

   25. Graph showing numerical difference in weighted wind fetch from the existing conditions management
      scenario to scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Capoli Slough HREP.

   26. Map showing difference in weighted wind fetch from the existing conditions management scenario to
      scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Harpers Slough HREP.

   27. Graph showing numerical difference in weighted wind fetch from the existing conditions management
      scenario to scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Harpers Slough HREP.

   28. Diagram explaining process for calculating percent of days capable of suspending sediments.

29–31. Maps showing:

   29. Sediment suspension probability results for the Capoli Slough HREP.

   30. Sediment suspension probability results for the Harpers Slough HREP.

   31. Difference in sediment suspension probability from the existing conditions management scenario
   to scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Capoli Slough HREP.

   32. Graph showing numerical difference in sediment suspension probability from the existing conditions
      management scenario to scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Capoli Slough HREP.

   33. Map showing difference in sediment suspension probability from the existing conditions management
      scenario to scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Harpers Slough HREP.

   34. Graph showing numerical difference in sediment suspension probability from the existing conditions
      management scenario to scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the Harpers Slough HREP.

   35. Map showing location of Swan Lake HREP.

36–38. Aerial photographs showing:

   36. Location of revised island addition to Swan Lake HREP area.

   37. Swan Lake HREP with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed islands labeled.

   38. Swan Lake HREP with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed islands labeled.

   39. Sample copy of a National Climatic Data Center, local climatological data summary sheet.

   40. Graph showing breakdown of wind directions collected for Lambert–St. Louis International Airport site.

   41. Screen shot showing weighted sum dialog window example.

   42. Map showing results of weighted wind fetch analysis for Swan Lake HREP.

   43. Graphs showing percent decrease in total weighted fetch between existing conditions and
      U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed island design for Swan Lake HREP.

   44. Graphs showing percent decrease in total weighted fetch between existing conditions and
       U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed island design for Swan Lake HREP.

Tables

     1. Tabular summarization of wind fetch measurements calculated using the two different methods.

     2. Summarization of results used to test for deep versus shallow water.


Availability

This document is available in Portable Document Format (PDF)

To view and print report you will need to use Adobe Acrobat Reader (available as freeware)

Users with visual disabilities can visit Online conversion tools for Adobe PDF documents web page

small image of front cover

Printable tabloid covers 4 and 1 (972 KB) - 1 page (11” by 17” paper)

Printable tabloid covers 2 and 3 (18 KB) - 1 page (11” by 17” paper)

Whole report (2.67 MB) - 43 pages (8.5” by 11” paper)


Suggested Citation:


Rohweder, Jason, Rogala, James T., Johnson, Barry L., Anderson, Dennis, Clark, Steve, Chamberlin, Ferris, and Runyon, Kip, 2008, Application of wind fetch and wave models for habitat rehabilitation and enhancement projects: U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2008–1200, 43 p.




For more information about USGS activities at the Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center,
please visit the UMESC Web site.




U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL:
Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
Last modified: Wednesday, December 07 2016, 09:23:18 PM
FirstGov button  Take Pride in America button