Open-File Report 2010–1220
A database of hourly values of air temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation from January 1, 1948, to September 30, 2003, primarily using data collected at the Argonne National Laboratory station, was developed for use in continuous-time hydrologic modeling in northeastern Illinois. Missing and apparently erroneous data values were replaced with adjusted values from nearby stations used as "backup". Temporal variations in the statistical properties of the data resulting from changes in measurement and data-storage methodologies were adjusted to match the statistical properties resulting from the data-collection procedures that have been in place since January 1, 1989. The adjustments were computed based on the regressions between the primary data series from Argonne National Laboratory and the backup series using data obtained during common periods; the statistical properties of the regressions were used to assign estimated standard errors to values that were adjusted or filled from other series. Each hourly value was assigned a corresponding data-source flag that indicates the source of the value and its transformations. An analysis of the data-source flags indicates that all the series in the database except dewpoint have a similar fraction of Argonne National Laboratory data, with about 89 percent for the entire period, about 86 percent from 1949 through 1988, and about 98 percent from 1989 through 2003. The dewpoint series, for which observations at Argonne National Laboratory did not begin until 1958, has only about 71 percent Argonne National Laboratory data for the entire period, about 63 percent from 1948 through 1988, and about 93 percent from 1989 through 2003, indicating a lower reliability of the dewpoint sensor.
A basic statistical analysis of the filled and adjusted data series in the database, and a series of potential evapotranspiration computed from them using the computer program LXPET (Lamoreux Potential Evapotranspiration) also was carried out. This analysis indicates annual cycles in solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration that follow the annual cycle of extraterrestrial solar radiation, whereas temperature and dewpoint annual cycles are lagged by about 1 month relative to the solar cycle. The annual cycle of wind has a late summer minimum, and spring and fall maximums. At the annual time scale, the filled and adjusted data series and computed potential evapotranspiration have significant serial correlation and possibly have significant temporal trends. The inter-annual fluctuations of temperature and dewpoint are weakest, whereas those of wind and potential evapotranspiration are strongest.
First posted September 23, 2010
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Over, T.M., Price, T.H., and Ishii, A.L., 2010, Development and analysis of a meteorological database, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2010–1220, 67 p.
Meteorological Database Development
Appendix 1– Ratio-of-Averages Regression
Appendix 2 – Regressions Relating Meteorological Series at Argonne National Laboratory and Backup Stations
Appendix 3 – Comparisons between Adjusted and Original Data Series
Appendix 4 – Statistics of Data Sources and Transformations