Skip Links

USGS - science for a changing world

Open-File Report 2010–1227

Monitoring and Assessment of Ocean Acidification in the Arctic Ocean: A Scoping Paper

By Lisa L. Robbins, Kimberly K. Yates, Richard Feely, and Victoria J. Fabry

Thumbnail of report cover


Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the ocean surface by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats. The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

First posted September 29, 2010

For additional information contact:
Lisa L. Robbins
U.S. Geological Survey
St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701

Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

Suggested citation:

Robbins, L.L., Yates, K.K., Feely, Richard, and Fabry, V.J., 2010, Monitoring and assessment of ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean—A scoping paper: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1227, 4 p.


Introduction: Ocean Acidification and the Arctic Ocean

Ocean Acidification

Arctic Ocean

Timing and Synergies

What Important Information Needs Have Been Identified?

Suggested Reading

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: USGS Publications Team
Page Last Modified: Wednesday, 07-Dec-2016 22:42:20 EST