Tripods were deployed at three sites along the outer perimeter of the shoal. Mounted on the tripods were instruments to measure surface waves, pressure, current velocity, bottom turbulence, suspended-sediment profiles, and sea-floor sand-ripple bedforms; one tripod also held a visual camera system. The measurements will be used to explore the oceanographic and sediment-transport processes responsible for maintaining the offshore sand shoal. For more information see <http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2009/09003/> and <http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2009/09014/>
Armstrong, Brandy N.G. , Warner, John C. , Voulgaris, George, List, Jeffrey H. , Thieler, E. Robert , Martini, Marinna A. , and Montgomery, Ellyn T. , 2011, Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project Data Report for Observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009: Open-File Report 2011-1156, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.
This research was funded by the Carolinas Coastal Change Project (<https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1156/>), a study supported by the USGS. We thank the captains and crews of the R/V Connecticut for their outstanding logistical support for this field measurement program. This effort involved two cruises to deploy and recover instruments at three locations moorings to obtain this dataset. John Warner was the chief scientist on the cruises. Fran Lightsom, Marinna Martini, Brandy Armstrong and Ellyn Montgomery oversaw and processed the time-series data. Brandy Armstrong made all of the plots and calculations, and assembled the data report. Christine Sabens, Ellyn Montgomery, and Brandy Armstrong helped prepare for deployment and recovery. Marinna Martini and Jonathan Borden oversaw the preparation and deployment of the physical oceanographic instrumentation. Brandy Armstrong, Neil Ganju, Sandy Baldwin, Kate McMullen, Brenton Taylor, and Elizabeth Pendleton helped in deployment and(or) recovery of the instrumentation. Sandy Baldwin and Marinna Martini took most of the photographs in this report. The Remotely Operated Vehicle was expertly operated by Jonathon Borden. The reviewers provided useful reviews of this report. This research was funded by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program.
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This Open-File Report provides information for an oceanographic field study that occurred from January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The report describes the background, experimental setup, description of equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. Plots of time-series measurements are provided for visualization of the data. Links to the data files are provided for analysis. Supporting observational data are provided.
The North Site had three instrument deployments:
North Flobee at 35.17863N, 75.42292W at a water depth of 14.7 meters - instruments include Acoustic Doppler Current Profile (ADCP), Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBSs), Acoustic Backscatter Sensor System (ABSS), Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP), Sontek hydra system, Seatech transmissometers, Paroscientific (Paros) Pressure Sensors, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, and a Sea-Bird MicroCAT.
North Minipod at 35.1783° N, 75.423355° W at a water depth of 14.8 meters - instruments include ADCP, time-series visual image camera with flash, pencil beam and rotating sonar imaging system, Sea-Bird SEACAT, transmissometer, laser in situ scattering and transmissometer instrument (LISST), and an Aquadopp Acoustic Profiler.
North Surface mooring at 35.177867N, 75.422617W at water surface - instruments include ARGOS (Seimac CML) and Iridium (Xeos melo) satellite beacons on the buoys to track position, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, a Sea-Bird MicroCAT and a pressure and temperature sensor (PT).
South Sites with two deployments:
South Flobee at 35.12958N, 75.49204W at water depth 14.0 meters - instruments include ADCP, ADVs, OBSs, an ABS system, a PCADP, Sontek hydra system, Seatech transmissometers, Paros pressure sensors, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, and a Sea-Bird MicroCAT.
South Surface Mooring at 35.12895N, 75.49187W at water surface - instruments include ARGOS (Seimac CML) and Iridium (Xeos melo) satellite beacons on the buoys to track position, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, and a PT.
Tip Micropod at 35.098985N, 75.376055W at water depth 23.7 meters - instruments include upward-looking ADCP, Sea-Bird SEACAT, and Seatech transmissometer.
The instruments were deployed and recovered aboard the R/V Connecticut, a research vessel owned and operated by the University of Connecticut. Ellyn Montgomery is the contact for this process step and the subsequent process step.
Person who carried out this activity:
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Data processing was conducted using the proprietary software for each instrument, and (or) specialized software developed by the USGS. The proprietary software was often used to download data from the instruments and export the data to ASCII-files. Post-processing of the raw binary or ASCII files was accomplished using USGS software developed in the MATLAB (<http://www.mathworks.com/>) programming language. Most MATLAB M-files used for post-processing are available via the World Wide Web (WWW) (links provided). Those that are not available via the WWW are included in this report (see the Matlab m-files section available in <https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1156/>).
Data were first decoded and calibrated from instrument-specific formats and units to the EPIC-standard NetCDF format (<http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/epic/>) and scientific units. Data were carefully checked for instrument malfunctions and then edited. The beginning and end of each data series were truncated to remove data collected out of water. The data were carefully checked at each stage of processing. After final editing, the best basic version of the data file includes all variables recorded at the basic sampling interval. Best basic versions of all data files in NetCDF format are included in this report.
These data have been edited to remove outlying points and data recorded when the instruments were out of the water before and after deployment.
Biological fouling often degrades acoustical and optical data after several months of deployment. Organisms grow on the instrument transducers and gradually block acoustical pulses and light transmission, which results in a gradual upward drift of the beam attenuation coefficient. Care has been exercised to remove most data that have been affected by biofouling.
There was significant tilt of the ADCP at the North Flobee site when the tripod tipped in mid April. The velocity data have been removed for this latter portion of this ADCP file, but pressure and temperature data are available for the whole period. A change in the deployment depth at the Tip Micropod site resulted in data that did not reach the surface for that site. All data should be used and interpreted with care.
Montgomery, E.T., Martini, M.A., Lightsom, F.L., and Butman, Bradford, 2008, Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database: Open-File Report 2007-1194, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.
The mooring deployment locations (latitude and longitude) were recorded based on the R/V Connecticut's onboard GPS. Specification are available at <http://www.marinesciences.uconn.edu/MSTC/Vesselops/rv_specs.html>.
The ADCP sensors record water depth (meters) as mean sea level from a pressure sensor. The remaining sensor have height measure in meters above bottom as a function of instrument mount location on the tripod as measured prior to deployment.
The data have been edited to remove outlying points and data recorded when the instruments were out of the water (before and after deployment. Additionally, one tripod (North Flobee) tipped over near mid April. The velocity and other data jeopardized by this sensor tilt were removed. The Tip Micropod had a change in deployment depth which resulted in data that did not reach the surface.
Data are logically consistent
Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
- Access_Constraints: None
- Data presented within this publication are in the public domain. Please acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal Marine Geology Program as the source of this data.
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Downloadable Data available from links within the publication: <https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1156/>.
Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
The user must be capable of reading netCDF files.
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