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Open-File Report 2011-1247

Sampling Large Landscapes with Small-Scale Stratification—User’s Manual

By Jonathan Bart


This manual explains procedures for partitioning a large landscape into plots, assigning the plots to strata, and selecting plots in each stratum to be surveyed. These steps are referred to as the “sampling large landscapes (SLL) process.” We assume that users of the manual have a moderate knowledge of ArcGIS and Microsoft® Excel. The manual is written for a single user but in many cases, some steps will be carried out by a biologist designing the survey and some steps will be carried out by a quantitative assistant. Thus, the manual essentially may be passed back and forth between these users. The SLL process primarily has been used to survey birds, and we refer to birds as subjects of the counts. The process, however, could be used to count any objects.

First posted September 26, 2011

For additional information contact:
Director, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center,
U.S. Geological Survey, 777 NW 9th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330

Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

Suggested citation:

Bart, Jonathan, 2011, Sampling large landscapes with small-scale stratification—User’s Manual: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1247, 14 p.



Steps in the Sampling Large Landscapes Process

Example: Snake River Birds of Prey Area

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