Skip Links

USGS - science for a changing world

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1115

Prepared in cooperation with the State of Hawaiʻi Commission on Water Resource Management

Measurements of Seepage Losses and Gains, East Maui Irrigation Diversion System, Maui, Hawaiʻi

By Chui Ling Cheng

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (2.9 MB)Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a field study from March to October 2011 to identify ditch characteristics and quantify seepage losses and gains in the East Maui Irrigation (EMI) diversion system, east Maui, Hawaiʻi. The EMI diversion system begins at Makapipi Stream in the east and ends at Māliko Gulch in the west. It consists of four primary ditches known as the Wailoa, New Hāmākua, Lowrie, and Haʻikū Ditches. Additional ditches that connect to the four primary ditches include the Koʻolau, Spreckels, Kauhikoa, Spreckels at Pāpaʻaʻea, Manuel Luis, and Center Ditches.

Ditch characteristics for about 63 miles of the EMI diversion system, excluding abandoned ditches and stream conveyances, were identified. About 46 miles (73 percent) of the surveyed diversion system are tunnels and 17 miles are open ditches—in which 11 miles are unlined, 3.5 miles are lined, and 2.5 miles are partially lined. The Wailoa, Kauhikoa, and Haʻikū Ditches have greater than 96 percent of their total lengths as tunnels, whereas more than half of the Lowrie Ditch and Spreckels Ditch at Pāpaʻaʻea are open ditches. About 70 percent of the total length of lined open ditches in the EMI diversion system is located along the Koʻolau Ditch, whereas about 67 percent of the total length of unlined open ditches in the diversion system is located along the Lowrie Ditch. Less than 4 percent of the EMI diversion system is partially lined open ditches, and about half of the total partially lined open-ditch length is in the Spreckels Ditch. EMI regularly maintains and repairs the diversion system; therefore, ditch characteristics documented in this report are representative of conditions existing during the period of this study.

Discharge measurements were made along 26 seepage-run measurement reaches that are a total of about 15 miles in length. The seepage-run measurement reaches represent 23 percent of the total length of ditches in the EMI diversion system. Discharge measurements were made along the measurement reaches during periods of stable ditch flow in the months of June, August, and September 2011. The discharge measurements indicate that Koʻolau Ditch and Spreckels Ditch at Pāpaʻaʻea generally had seepage losses, whereas Wailoa, Kauhikoa, and New Hāmākua Ditches had seepage gains within the measured reaches. The Manuel Luis, Center, Lowrie, and Haʻikū Ditches had variable seepage losses and gains within the seepage-run measurement reaches. Open-ditch measurement reaches generally had seepage losses that ranged from 0.1 cubic feet per second per mile of ditch at the Lowrie Ditch to 3.0 cubic feet per second per mile at the Koʻolau Ditch. Tunnel measurement reaches generally had seepage gains that ranged from 0.1 cubic feet per second per mile at the Manuel Luis Ditch to 5.2 cubic feet per second per mile at the Wailoa Ditch.

Last modified November 5, 2012
First posted August 17, 2012

  • Report PDF. This version includes the appendix split across two pages (2.9 MB).
  • Appendix PDF. This is the same appendix that is in the report linked above but as a single tabloid-format (11” x 17”) sheet (0.5 MB)
  • This report is available only on the Web.

For additional information contact:
Center Director, Pacific Islands Water Science Center
U.S. Geological Survey
677 Ala Moana Blvd., Suite 415
Honolulu, HI 96813
http://hi.water.usgs.gov/

This report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.


Suggested citation:

Cheng, C.L., 2012, Measurements of seepage losses and gains, East Maui Irrigation diversion system, Maui, Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1115, 23 p. (Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1115/.)



Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Description of the Study Area

Seepage Loss and Gain Investigation

Summary and Conclusions

References Cited

Appendix—Ditch characteristics and seepage rates of the East Maui Irrigation diversion system, east Maui, Hawaiʻi


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1115/
Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
Page Last Modified: Saturday, January 12, 2013, 03:26:30 PM