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Open-File Report 2013–1166

Report of Geomagnetic Pulsation Indices for Space Weather Applications

By Z. Xu, J.L. Gannon, and E.J. Rigler

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (1.31 MB)Abstract

The phenomenon of ultra-low frequency geomagnetic pulsations was first observed in the ground-based measurements of the 1859 Carrington Event and has been studied for over 100 years. Pulsation frequency is considered to be “ultra” low when it is lower than the natural frequencies of the plasma, such as the ion gyrofrequency. Ultra-low frequency pulsations are considered a source of noise in some geophysical analysis techniques, such as aeromagnetic surveys and transient electromagnetics, so it is critical to develop near real-time space weather products to monitor these geomagnetic pulsations. The proper spectral analysis of magnetometer data, such as using wavelet analysis techniques, can also be important to Geomagnetically Induced Current risk assessment.

First posted September 19, 2013

For additional information contact:
Director, Geologic Hazards Science Center
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25046, MS-966
Denver, CO 80225-0046

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Suggested citation:

Xu, Z., Gannon, J.L., and Rigler, E.J., 2013, Report of geomagnetic pulsation indices for space weather applications: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1166, 22 p.,



Data and Methods

Results and Validation


References Cited


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